BIOMEDICINE & NURSING

​​​​​​​​Biomedicine and Nursing
Quarterly
Volume 1 - Issue 3 (Cumulated No. 3), December 25, 2015.

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1. Occurrence of Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Vegetables Sold in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria
Okojokwu, O.J.1*, Akpakpan E.E.2, Ndubuisi J.C.3, Kolawole O.T.3, Okopi, J.A.1
1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
2Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Federal University Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
3Department of Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author’s Email address: okojokwuoj@gmail.com


Abstract: Vegetables contaminated with pathogens can cause food poisoning, and can serve as vehicles for transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to humans. This study was therefore carried out to screen for the presence of O157:H7 strain of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli in vegetables eaten raw and sold at the various vegetable markets in Jos metropolis. A total of 80 samples of vegetables namely; cucumber (Cucumis sativus), lettuce (Lectuca sativa), tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicon) and cabbage (Brassica oleracae) were collected from popular vegetable markets in Jos metropolis and analyzed. All vegetables were contaminated with Escherichia coli were isolated from 13.8% (11/80) of the vegetable samples, 25% (5/20) of cucumber had the highest contamination while tomatoes had the lowest contamination of about 5% (1/20). Escherichia coli O157:H7 (18.2%) was detected among the Escherichia coli isolates. All the Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates were detected in cucumber thus accounting for 40.0% (2/5) of the Escherichia coli-positive cucumber samples. The presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in these vegetables poses public health concern and calls for improved hygienic practices in vegetable production and handling because these vegetables receive little or no heat treatment before consumption.
[Okojokwu, O.J., Akpakpan E.E., Ndubuisi J.C., Kolawole O.T., Okopi, J.A. Occurrence of Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Vegetables Sold in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria. Biomedicine and Nursing 2015;1(3): 1-6]. ISSN 2379-8211.http://www.nbmedicine.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj010315.01
Keywords: Vegetables, Escherichia coli O157:H7, coliform, contamination


2. Epidemiology of Trichomonas Vaginalis Infection Among Women in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria
Okojokwu, O.J.1*, Akpakpan E.E.2, Kolawole O.T.3, Ndubuisi J.C.3, Okopi, J.A.1
1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria

2Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Federal University Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
3Department of Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author’s Email address: okojokwuoj@gmail.com


Abstract: Trichomoniasis has become famous a common sexually transmitted protozoal infection which is associated with adverse birth outcome. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among women n Jos metropolis, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty (150) high vaginal swab samples were collected and analysed by wet mount. Overall, 6 women (4.0%) were positive for T. vaginalis. The women between age bracket 34 – 44 years had the highest prevalence of 18.2% followed by age group 15 – 24 years (3.4%) but the different was not significant. Other risk factors such as marital status, number of sexual partners, frequency of sexual intercourse per week and pregnancy status examined and showed no significant association with trichomoniasis. The infection was significantly associated with HIV/AIDS (p = 0.030) hence showing increased likelihood of T. vaginalis infection. Trichomonas vaginalis infection is present in Jos metropolis with low prevalence of 4.0%. The majority of infected individuals were aged 34 – 44 years and sexually active.
[Okojokwu, O.J., Akpakpan E.E., Kolawole O.T., Ndubuisi J.C., Okopi, J.A. Epidemiology of Trichomonas Vaginalis Infection Among Women in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria. Biomedicine and Nursing 2015;1(3): 7-11]. ISSN 2379-8211.http://www.nbmedicine.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj010315.02
Keywords: Trichomonas vaginalis, Trichomoniasis, Prevalence, Women, Jos, Nigeria


3. Effects of Touchscreen Training on Hippocampal Plasticity with BDNF as a Mediator
Xinxin Wang a, Shanshan Ma b, Hongwei Li a, Jian Wang c, Herbert B. Tanowitzd, Bo Yanga,*, Fangxia Guan a,b*
a First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan Province, China

b School of Life Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan Province, China
c Department of Anesthesiology/Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
d Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
E-mails: guanfangxia@126.com, yangbo96@126.com


Abstract: Hippocampus is the hub in neural system and the focus in cognitive science as it is essential for learning and memory. Neurogenesis opened a new chapter on hippocampus plasticity and abundant researches have suggested that neurogenesis could be regulated by various in vivo and in vitro factors such as training. In molecular level, brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) promote neuroplasticity and contributes to learning and memory. In the present study, the touchscreen-equipped system was introduced and the mechanisms regulating learning and memory and the dynamic interplay between touchscreen training, hippocampal neurogenesis, learning and memory and the role of BDNF signaling were explored. Additionally, we discussed how to promote learning and memory through optimizing the conditions of visual stimuli and manipulating the plasticity of hippocampus by BDNF signaling. This could provide new perspectives in effective therapeutic strategies for cognitive dysfunction resulting from neurodegenerative, neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopment disorders.
Xinxin Wang, Shanshan Ma, Hongwei Li, Jian Wang, Herbert B. Tanowitz, Bo Yang, Fangxia Guan. Effects of Touchscreen Training on Hippocampal Plasticity with BDNF as a Mediator. Biomedicine and Nursing 2015;1(3): 12-20]. ISSN 2379-8211. http://www.nbmedicine.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj010315.03
Keywords:Touchscreen training, Hippocampal neurogenesis, Learning and memory, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor


4. Nursing Today Research Literatures
Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young 2, Zhu Yucui 3, Yang Yan 1, Zhu Huaijie 4
1 Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; 3 Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West, 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA; 4 The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 2 Jingba Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450014, China 

ma8080@gmail.com, jacksun689@gmail.com


Abstract: Nursing is a professional work within the health care system on the care of individuals, families, and communities so that they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physicians. In the postwar period, nurse education has undergone a process of diversification towards advanced and specialized credentials, and many of the traditional regulations and provider roles are changing. In the fifth century BC, for example, the Hippocratic Collection in places describes skilled care and observation of patients by male attendants, who may have been early nurses. The practice of school nursing must change with the times. School nurses must develop new leadership and collaborative skills to work within the interdisciplinary school and community teams that will be required to put changes in place. This article introduces recent research reports on nursing and war as references in the related studies.
[Ma H, Young M, Zhu Y, Yang Y, Zhu H. Nursing Today Research Literatures. Biomedicine and Nursing 2015;1(3):21-23].ISSN 2379-8211. http://www.nbmedicine.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj010315.04
Key words: nursing; life; research; literature; today

5. Nursing and Technology Research Literatures
Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young 2, Zhu Yucui 3, Yang Yan 1, Zhu Huaijie 4
1 Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; 3 Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West, 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA; 4 The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 2 Jingba Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450014, China 
ma8080@gmail.com, yz81@columbia.edu


Abstract: The world of health care will increasingly be a world of high technology. Nursing is a professional work within the health care system on the care of individuals, families, and communities so that they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physicians. In the postwar period, nurse education has undergone a process of diversification towards advanced and specialized credentials, and many of the traditional regulations and provider roles are changing. In the fifth century BC, for example, the Hippocratic Collection in places describes skilled care and observation of patients by male attendants, who may have been early nurses. If nursing education can address the issue, nurses and their coworkers will have a solid basis to provide high touch with high-tech care. This article introduces recentresearch reports on nursing and war as references in the related studies.
[Ma H, Young M, Zhu Y, Yang Y, Zhu H. Nursing and Technology Research Literatures. Biomedicine and Nursing 2015;1(3):24-26]. ISSN 2379-8211. http://www.nbmedicine.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj010315.05
Key words: nurse; technology; life; research; literature


6. Nurse and Diabetes Research Literatures
Ma Hongbao 1, Margaret Young 2, Zhu Yucui 3, Yang Yan 1, Zhu Huaijie 4
1 Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA; 2 Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; 3 Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West, 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA; 4 The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 2 Jingba Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450014, China 
ma8080@gmail.com, jacksun689@gmail.com


Abstract: Nursing care for hospitalized patients with diabetes has become more complex as evidence accumulates that inpatient glycemic control improves outcomes. Nursing is a professional work within the health care system on the care of individuals, families, and communities so that they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physicians. In the postwar period, nurse education has undergone a process of diversification towards advanced and specialized credentials, and many of the traditional regulations and provider roles are changing. In the fifth century BC, for example, the Hippocratic Collection in places describes skilled care and observation of patients by male attendants, who may have been early nurses. This article introduces recent research reports on nursing and war as references in the related studies.
[Ma H, Young M, Zhu Y, Yang Y, Zhu H. Nurse and Diabetes Research Literatures. Biomedicine and Nursing 2015;1(3):27-67]. ISSN 2379-8211. http://www.nbmedicine.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj010315.06
Key words: nurse; life; research; literature


7. Mercury Contamination of Whitecheek Shark (Carcharhinus Dussumieri): its Relation to the Length and Sex
Somayeh Torabi Delshad1*, Seyed Abdolmajid Mousavi2, Houman Rajabi Islami1, Abdolrahim Pazira3
1 Department of Fisheries, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O Box: 14155-4933, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of animal Science, Agriculture Faculty, Varamin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran.
3 Department of Fisheries, Boushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Boushehr, Iran.
* Corresponding author: st.delshad@yahoo.com


Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the total mercury concentration in muscle, liver and fin tissues of whitecheek shark (Carcharhinus dussumieri, Carcharhinidae). Approximately 26 percent of all captured Sharks had total mercury concentrations greater than 0.2 mg/kg w.w., 48% contained amounts higher than 0.4 mg/kg w.w. and 22 % had more than 0.6 mg/kg w.w. Only 4 % of all samples had a concentration greater than 0.8 mg/kg w.w. In spite of significant differences in the length distributions of male and female, there were no significant differences in total mercury concentrations of experimental tissues between the genders. In all stations, muscle tissue showed the highest mercury levels (0.73 mg/kg w.w in males and 0.77 mg/kg w.w in famels), followed by Liver (0.28 mg/kg w.w. in males and 0.29 mg/kg w.w. in females) and Fins (0.13 mg/kg and 0.16 mg/kg w.w., respectively). No significant correlation was found between the concentration of mercury in tissues with sex and location, although length had an increasing effect on mercury concentration. In addition, length showed strongly positive correlation with mercury concentration of fins. The current study illustrated that consumption of less than 0.5 kg/week from muscle tissue of the whitecheek shark could result in a daily intake of 80 μg Hg which is more than 45 times the maximum intake concentration established by the World Health Organization.
[Torabi Delshad S, Mousavi SA, Rajabi Islami H, Pazira A. Mercury Contamination of Whitecheek Shark (Carcharhinus Dussumieri): its Relation to the Length and Sex. Biomedicine and Nursing 2015;1(3):68-74]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online); http://www.nbmedicine.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj010315.07
Keywords: Mercury, Whitecheek shark, Muscle, Persian Gulf


8. Mental Health: An Analysis
Armin Mahmoudi1 & Abdolkalegh Golami2
1Department of Studies in Education, Yasouj branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj, Iran. 
email: agm1391@gmail.com
2Department of Mnagement, Yasouj branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj, Iran.


Abstract: The fundamental of children mental and social growth, the feeling of security and affection are done during the first years in childhood. Kindness, affection understanding among family can increase self concept and make grow creative generation. In a formal family, parents not only respect each other but also they have equal and similar method so that the children feel that their parents are in­timate. Adults and children should know that their parents are the source of hap­piness, affection. They are there to satisfy their physical and mental needs and they should believe that their parents are their shelter. In most cases inattention of parents and lack of suitable relationship would cause adults and children to face deficiency of affection. So, the root of children and adults' incorrect behavior should be found in the first years of childhood and among finalizes. The main purpose of mental health is the prevention of slightly behavioral disorder and growing health as the best kind of mental health. In this case, it is necessary for a society to prevent people from suffering from mental health by formal and informal training and people should be vaccinated against diseases. Because treatment should be before the accident (event) happens. Parents as the first teachers have a great duty to protect mental health and children's personality. Parents at first should pay attention to their children basic needs such as playing, respect, duties, and acceptance and provide for them all of these. Parents should im­prove the environment of their house. It means they should provide warm en­vironment because bringing environment of fear, threat, anxiety, and mental pressure will damage children mental health. Parents should try to provide peace and quiet intimate in the environ­ment of the family if children know that parents accept them they will feel respect and value. Briefly speaking, parents should be the practical sample political, religious and beliefs.
[Armin Mahmoudi, Abdolkalegh Golami, Mental Health: An Analysis. Biomedicine and Nursing 2015;1(3): 75-77]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online); http://www.nbmedicine.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj010315.08
Keywords: Mental Health, behavioral disorder, growing health, environ­ment, principles


9. Role of Endogenous Gamma Interferon in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Egyptian Patients
Treated with Peginterferon Alpha 2a plus Ribavirin

Refaat Sadeq 1, Mohamed E. El Zowalaty 2, 3,*, Heba Mohtady 1, Nissreen Al Badawy 1, Salwa Ibrahim 1, Abdul Rahman Omar 3
1. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt,
2. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt,
3. Department of vaccine and immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Malaysia

elzow001@gmail.com


Abstract: Hepatits C virus (HCV) infections remain an increasingly prevalent and dreadful health problem worldwide that causes a wide spectrum of liver diseases. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon (peginterferon) plus ribavirin is currently recognized as the standard treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Several immunological mechanisms are involved during the course of treatment of HCV via interferon. Data are scattered in the literature on the role of endogenous interferon gamma (IFNγ) in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy. The present study was thus conducted to evaluate the role of endogenous IFNγ in the response of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients following treatment with pegylated plus ribavirin. Forty patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection were included in the study. Twenty healthy blood donors were used as healthy control. It was found that enhanced IFNγ production would be predicted to favor HCV clearance. The magnitude of pretreatment of interferon alpha (IFNα)-driven IFNγ responses correlates with initial response to therapy is certainly consistent with this prediction. In addition, the results suggested that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the MxA gene is one of the important host factors that independently influenced the response to IFNαin patients with CHC infection, especially those with a low viral load.
[Sadeq R, El Zowalaty ME, Mohtady H, Al Badawy N, Ibrahim S, Omar AR. Role of Endogenous Gamma Interferon in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Egyptian Patients Treated with Peginterferon Alpha 2a plus Ribavirin. Biomedicine and Nursing 2015;1(3): 78-87]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online); http://www.nbmedicine.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj010315.09
Keywords: Chronic, Hepatitis C, response, interferon gamma, interferon alpha, therapy


10. Absolute Parametric Instability in a Nonuniform Plane Plasma Waveguide
Khaled Hamed El-Shorbagy , Atef Ahmed El-Bendary  and Shatha Jameel Monaquel
 Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt.
2. Math. Dept., Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
3. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31527 Tanta, Egypt.
4. College of Science and Humanity Studies, AL-KHARJ University, Solayl, Saudi Arabia.
drkhalede@yahoo.com


Abstract: The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in a magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high frequency (HF) electric field. It is shown that allowance for the spatial nonuniformity leads to 1) localization of unstable waves in a finite region of a plasma volume, 2) increases in the threshold value of the pump wave amplitude above which parametric amplification occurs and 3) decreases in the value of the growth rate of unstable waves.
[Kharkwal G, Mehrotra P, Rawat YS. Taxonomic Diversity of Understorey Vegetation in Kumaun Himalayan Forests. Biomedicine and Nursing 2015;1(3): 88-93]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online); http://www.nbmedicine.org.10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj010315.10
Keywords: Absolute Parametric Instability, Separation Method, Anisotropic plane Plasma Waveguide, Nonuniform Plasma


11. Beware Of Paracetamol Toxicity
H.L. Vidhya Malar* and S. Mary Mettilda Bai
P.G and Research Department of Zoology, Holy Cross College, Nagercoil- 629 004. Tamil Nadu. India.

*E-mail: vidhyamalar@yahoo.co.in


Abstract: The Effect of Paracetamol, Mechanism by which it works, Metabolism, Recommended doses, Toxic dosage are discussed with study reports in this Paper. Paracetamol shows some life threatening effects like Liver damage which in turn leads to live failure and death. Though it reduces fever and pain, it is found highly toxic. The mechanism by which Paracetamol reduces fever and pain is still not known. On metabolism, Paracetamol is converted to a metabolite which is very toxic to liver cells. In recommended doses (1-2g/day), Paracetamol does not irritate stomach lining, kidney cells and liver cells. Studies reported that high dosage (>2g/day), resulted in Gastrointestinal complications, abnormal Kidney function, Liver damage.
[H.L. Vidhya Malar and S. Mary Mettilda Bai. Beware Of Paracetamol Toxicity. Biomedicine and Nursing 2015;1(3): 94-95].ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online); http://www.nbmedicine.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsbnj010315.11
Key words: Paracetamol, Phenacetin, Endogenous Cannabinoid System (ECS), Paracetamol Metabolism, Recommended dosage, Toxic doses, Liver failure.


12. Factors contributing to lo Tuberculosis cure rate: The views of professional nurses in the primary health care facilities within the Greater Giyani Municipalities of Limpopo Province
Maswanganyi Nandzumuni Velaphi1, Rachel Tsakani Lebese2, Ntsieni Stella Mashau3

1Department of Health and Social Welfare, Limpopo Province, South Africa
2Department of Advanced Nursing science, University of Venda Limpopo, Province, South Africa, P.O Box 3198, Giyani
3Department of Public Health, University of Venda, Limpopo Province, South Africa Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou0950
rachel.lebese@univen.ac.za


Abstract: The study took place in Mopani district which is one of the districts with TB cure rate of below 85%. The cure rate for the facilities ranges from as low as 14% to 94%. According to the National TB Strategic plan the target for TB cure rate is 85%. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the views of primary health care nurses in relation to factors contributing to low TB cure rates in primary health care facilities of greater Giyani Municipality in Mopani District of Limpopo Province. The research design in this study was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive, and contextual in nature. In this study the population consisted of professional nurses working in Primary health care facilities which have a cure rate of below the national target of 85%. Non probability purposive sampling was used to select the facilities with low TB cure rates. One professional nurse working with TB patients was sampled from each selected facility to make a total of 18. Interview guide was used to collect data. Tech’s open coding method of data analysis was used to analyse data in this study. The findings showed that the TB patients have cultural beliefs about TB which result in TB patients seeking assistance from traditional health practitioners and faith based healers first. It was also noted that there is poor referral system of TB patients from the hospital to the primary health care facilities which result in the lost to follow up.
[Maswanganyi NV, Lebese RT, Mashau NS. Factors contributing to lo Tuberculosis cure rate: The views of professional nurses in the primary health care facilities within the Greater Giyani Municipalities of Limpopo Province. Biomedicine and Nursing 2015;1(3):96-103]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online); http://www.nbmedicine.org. 12.doi:10.7537/marsbnj010315.12
Keywords: TB Cure rate, Tuberculosis, Professional nurse, TB patient



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