ISSN 2379-8203


​​​​​​​​​​​​Biomedicine and Nursing
Volume 2 - Issue 3 (Cumulated No. 6), September 25, 2016. (cover)

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​1. Resistant Anemia in CKD Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis (HD), What is the Role of Circulating Growth Arrest Specific Protein6 (Gas6)
Khodeir S. A.1, Shahba A. A. A1, Abdelmoemen G.2 and Zaky M S.3 Okasha K M1.
Departments of Internal Medicine 1, Clinical Pathology 2, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, and Departments of Internal Medicine, National Institute of the Nephrology and Urology.

Abstract: Erythropoietin-Stimulating Agents (ESAs) resistance is one of the most common complications in anemia patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). The poor response to ESAs therapy may be associated with increased mortality. Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6), a vitamin K-dependent protein, plays a role in cell growth, cell proliferation, anti-inflammation, and phagocytosis. Gas6 is expressed in some cell types, such as endothelial, smooth muscle, and bone marrow cells. Apart from its expression pattern, the biological role of Gas6 in hematopoiesis remains largely unknown. However, to date, the correlation between Gas6 and resistance remains unclear in HD patients. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between circulating Gas6 levels and ESAs resistance in HD patients. The study was carried on 234 HD patients and 86 healthy individuals. The HD patients were divided into 2 groups: non-ESA-resistant patients and 36 ESA-resistant patients. Plasma levels of Gas6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and albumin were quantified. The obtained results revealed that, compared with non-ESA-resistant patients, EPO-resistant patients had elevated plasma concentrations of Gas6 plasma Gas6 (13.8 ± 3.17 vs. 6.59± 1.69 ng/mL, P <0.001), and hs-CRP (6.5±8.7vs. 1.1±0.5mg/L, P= 0.001). In contrast, compared with healthy subjects, HD patients had significantly lower levels of SI (59.85 ± 24.3 vs. 95.6 ± 28.9 μg/dL, P < 0.001), TIBC (265.3± 65.3 vs. 345.3 ± 98.6 μg/dL, P < 0.001), TSAT (24.5± 8.7 vs. 30.7 ± 14.3 %, P = 0.001), Hct (31.6 ± 2.4 vs. 41.6 ± 4.6 %, P < 0.001), and albumin (3.92 ± 0.32 vs. 4.78 ± 0.47 g/dL, P < 0.001). In ESA-resistant HD patients, plasma Gas6 levels were negatively correlated with albumin levels (r =−0.466, P <0.024). Moreover, in healthy controls, Gas6 levels were positively correlated with hs-CRP levels but negatively correlated with Hct and albumin levels. In conclusion, ours work showed that there was elevated circulating Gas6 levels in ESA-resistant HD patients. Compared with non-ESA-resistant HD patients, ESA-resistant HD patients had significantly increased concentrations of plasma Gas6, and hs-CRP. Moreover, circulating Gas6 levels were negatively correlated with albumin levels in ESA-resistant HD patients. Thus, ESA- resistance in HD patients is associated with inflammation and nutritional status. We recommend that circulating Gas6 levels might be used as a potential biomarker for ESA- resistance in HD patients.
[Khodeir S.A; Shahba A.A; Abdelmoemen A.G. and Zaky M. Resistant Anemia in CKD Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD), what is the Role of Circulating growth arrest specific protein6 (Gas6). Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(3):1-6]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020316.01
Keywords: Resistant Anemia in CKD, Circulating growth arrest specific protein6 (Gas6) 

2. Effect of Haart on Vitamin E Level of HIV Seropositive Women in Nigeria
Victoria N. Mokwenye 1, Patrick N. Okoh2, Raphael M. Mordi 3, Abel N. Onunu. Geneviève N. Idemili1 Michael Okungbowa4, Emmanuel O. Odjadjare3
1 MedicalLaboratoryServices,UniversityofBeninTeachingHospital,BeninCity,EdoState,Nigeria. 2 Department of Biochemistry, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria
3 Department of Basic Sciences, Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.
4 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City.
5 Department of Medicine, University of Benin, Benin city.
Email address:; Phone: 2348023518894

Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the level of vitamin E in HIV seropositive women in their reproductive ages. These are women who notably have diverse experiences with HAART. The study was conducted in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), a tertiary healthcare institution in mid-western part of Nigeria. Patients recruited into the study were women who have been confirmed HIV positive. Age ranges of 18 to 40years, to exclude women who have reached menopause, were considered. One hundred seropositive women with fifty HIV negative women of same age group as control, were recruited. The level of Vitamin E was obtained before commencement of HAART as baseline value. Monitoring was every three months for nine months period. Results showed a progressive rise in Vitamin E from the first month to the sixth month of therapy with a sharp drop in level by the ninth month. This phenomenon was observed in all the phases of menstrual cycle – follicular, luteal and even amenorrhea phases. Conclusion: Administration of vitamin E after the sixth month of therapy is strongly recommended since the level of vitamin E reduced subsequently in all phases.
[Victoria N. Mokwenye, Patrick N. Okoh, Raphael M. Mordi, Abel N. Onunu. Geneviève N. Idemili Michael Okungbowa, Emmanuel O. Odjadjare. Effect of Haart on Vitamin E Level of HIV Seropositive Women in Nigeria. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(3): 7-13]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020316.02.
Keywords: HAART; HIV positive women; follicular phase; luteal phase; amenorrhea phase; vitamin E. 

3. The evaluation of the antimicrobial property of Cassia alata leaves in Benin city, Nigeria
Raphael M. Mordi; Amalawa N. Osula; Clara L. Igeleke; Emmanuel E. Odjadjare; F. O. J. Oboh; Esosa O Uwadiae
Department of Basic Sciences, Benson Idahosa University, Benin city Email address: Phone:2348023518894

Abstract: Cassia alata, a tropical plant is claimed to have a wide range of therapeutic values. The plant is commonly used traditionally for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. This study focused on the evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of Cassia alata leaves. The leaves were subjected to ethanol and aqueous extraction after which phytochemical screening was done to determine the phyto-constituents (bioactive compounds) in the leave extracts. The leaf extracts were investigated for it’s antimicrobial property. Agar diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial evaluation on muella-hinton agar for the bacteria and potato dextrose agar for the fungi. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of cardiac glycoside, reduced sugar in equal concentration in both extracts while flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and phenolics were in slightly higher concentrations in the ethanol extract than in the aqueous extract. Different concentrations of both extracts were tested on both bacteria and fungi. The antimicrobial effects produced by the extracts were dose dependent at the tested doses; 1000mg/ml, 500mg/ml and 250mg/ml. Only the aqueous extract showed activity against Escherichia coli at 1000mg/ml and 500mg/ml concentrations whereas the ethanol extract showed higher activity than the aqueous extract at 1000mg/ml and 500mg/ml concentrations against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus and at 1000mg/ml, 500mg/ml and 250mg/ml against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Only the ethanol extract showed activity against Trichonphyton species at 1000mg/ml and 500mg/ml and Alternaria alternata at 1000mg/ml, 500mg/ml, 250mg/ml and 125mg/ml concentrations while Aspergillus species was resistant to all the concentrations of both the ethanol and aqueous extracts. This study showed that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Cassia alata leaves contain some antimicrobial properties, and thus support the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of infections caused by micro-organisms.
[Raphael M. Mordi; Amalawa N. Osula; Clara L. Igeleke; Emmanuel E. Odjadjare; F. O. J. Oboh; Esosa O Uwadiae. The evaluation of the antimicrobial property of Cassia alata leaves in Benin city, Nigeria. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(3): 14-23]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020316.03.
Key words: Cassia alata; antimicrobial activity; aqueous and ethanol extracts; phyto-constituents 

​4. Epidemiology of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Apparent Density of Tsetse and Biting flies in selected Districts of Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia
* Asmamaw Aki Jano, Bayisa Kenaw and Mekonen Golessa
Asossa Regional veterinary Diagnostic, Surveillance, Monitoring and Study Laboratory, P.O. Box: 326
Email address:; cell phone: +251 922232353

Abstract: A cross-sectional study was carried out in seven Districts of Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia from September to January, 2016 to determine bovine trypanosomosis prevalence, prevailing trypanosomes species, vector density and associated risks. Blood samples collected from (n= 1645) randomly sampled cattle (Bosindicus). Dark phase contrast buffy coat procedures were used for determining prevalence. Whereas, haematocrit method was used for packed cell volume (PCV) values determination. Furthermore, traps were deployed for the purpose of entomological survey. Out of total 1645 samples, 162 (9.85%) were found trypanosome positive. Based on Predominant trypanosome species among recorded were Trypanosome congolense 124/162(76.54%), Trypanosome vivax 30/162(18.63%), Trypanosome brucei 4/162(2.48%) and mixed infection 4/162(2.48%). There were statistically significant differences concerning existing trypanosome species (P< 0.05). Mean packed cell volume (PCV) value of the parasitic animals was lower (23.84% + 1.85) than a parasitic animals (25.50% +1.14) and the variation was statistically significant (P< 0.05). Among the examined animals, 49.30% (811/1645) were found anaemic. Anaemia distribution was significantly higher (68.52%) %) in infected cattle than in non-infected (47.20%). Sex groups, age categories and body conditions (P< 0.0001) were demonstrated significant risk factors, however study districts was found non- significant(p>0.05). During the survey, Glossina moristans submorsitans was found in the area (2.49 f/t/d) along with other mechanical vectors such as stomoxys (1.66f/t/d), haematopota (0.31 f/t/d) and tabanus (0.12 f/t/d). In conclusion, the current study showed high trypanosomosis prevalence in the area reflecting the need for strategic control measures.
[Asmamaw Aki Jano, Bayisa Kenaw and Mekonen Golessa. Epidemiology of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Apparent Density of Tsetse and Biting flies in selected Districts of Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(3): 24-31]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020316.04.
Key words: Anemia, Seven Districts, PCV, Risk factor, Trypanosomosis, Tsetse fly 

5. Application of Nano Drug Delivery System in Mucoadhesive Polymers
Fatemeh Bonyadi
M.Sc. of Medical Nanotechnology, Islamic Azad University, Pharmaceutical Branch, Advance Sciences and Technology College, Tehran, Iran

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is an evaluation the range of use nano drug delivery system in Mucoadhesive polymers. The use of nanotechnology in drug delivery is rapidly increased. Mucus layer that covers the surface of a variety of organs which develop mucoadhesive dosage forms, increasing systemic bioavailability of the administered drug. Performances of intelligent drug delivery systems are continuously improved with the purpose to maximize therapeutic activity and to minimize undesirable side-effects. The present review initially describes the potential of nano-drug delivery systems conceived for mucosal administration. The emergence of micro and nanotechnologies together with the implementation of non-invasive and painless administration routes has revolutionized the pharmaceutical market and the treatment of disease. In addition, the regulatory status of the most extensively used mucoadhesive polymers will be emphasized. Besides, these relatively new and exciting data indicate that the future of nanomedicine is very promising, and that additional preclinical and clinical studies in relevant long-term Mucoadhesive polymers studies, should be conducted.
[Fatemeh Bonyadi. Application of Nano Drug Delivery System in Mucoadhesive Polymers. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(3): 32-42]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020316.05.
Keywords: Nano drug delivery, Mucoadhesive polymers, Synthetic polymers 

6. Microbial Profile of Chicken Meat Sold At Different Locations in Port Harcourt Metropolis
Omorodion Nnenna Jp
Department Of Microbiology, University Of Port Harcourt P.M.B 5323 River State Nigeria.,

Abstract: The microbiological quality of frozen chicken meat bought from Zartech cold room, Rumuola grocery retail market and Choba open market in Port Harcourt, Rivers state, was assessed. 5 samples were collected from each location, 15 samples collected in total. Total bacterial count (TBC), total Staphylococus count, total coliform count, total Salmonella count and fungal counts were done using Plate count agar, Mannitol salt agar, MacConckey agar, Salmonella-Shigella agar and Potato dextrose agar respectively. The result showed that the total bacterial count ranged from (5.9 × 106 cfu/g- 9.9 ×107cfu/g), total Staphylococcus count ranged from (2.5×104cfu/g – 7.2×105cfu/g), total coliform count ranged from (3.9 ×105cfu/g-1.6×106cfu/g), Salmonella count ranged from (2.5×104cfu/g – 3.1×105cfu/g). Fungal counts ranged from (2.7x104cfu/g - 5.9 x105cfu/g). Biochemical tests were done to identify isolates; From the 28 bacterial isolates, 7 different organisms were identified; Escherichia coli (14.3%), Salomonella sp (17.9%), Klebsiella sp (3.6%), Staphylococcus sp (39.3%), Serretia sp (7.1%), Shigella sp (7.1%) and Pseudomonas sp (10.7%). The fungal isolates identified by microscopy and physical examination include; Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillum sp and Mucor sp. A sensitivity test was done using Mueler- Hinton agar and the results showed that Staphylococcus sp exhibited 50% resistance, Salmonella sp; 80%, Klebsiella sp; 40%, Serretia sp;30% Shigella sp; 20%, E. coli;40%, Pseudomonas sp;30% resistance to the antibiotics used for the sensitivity. The presence of microorganisms in chicken meat is attributed to the conducive microbial environment it provides, as well as the poor hygienic practices during processing and selling especially in the open markets. Thus, proper storage and hygiene during processing and selling of chicken meat is of uttermost importance. [Omorodion Nnenna Jp. Microbial Profile Of Chicken Meat Sold At Different Locations In Port Harcourt Metropolis. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(3): 43-48]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020316.06. 
Keywords: Microbial; Profile; Chicken; Meat; Locations 

7. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A among some residents of Maiduguri Borno State Nigeria
*1El-Yuguda A. D., 1Kachallah A. M. And 2Dawurung J. S.
1Animal Virus Research Laboratory Department of Veterinary Microbiology University of Maiduguri Nigeria 2WHO National Laboratory for Polio University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital Nigeria
Email:; GSM: +2348034567258

Abstract: Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A virus among inhabitants of some parts of Maiduguri metropolis, Borno State Nigeria, was carried out using competitive ELISA. Out of 187 serum samples tested, 44 (23.5%) were positive. The gender distribution of the positive samples showed a prevalence rate of 40% among the males and 18.7% among the females. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) noted between the sexes. No significant difference (p>0.05) was however observed in the age distribution of the hepatitis A virus among the study group. This study has shown a low activity of hepatitis A virus among the study group.
[El-Yuguda A. D., Kachallah A. M. And Dawurung J. S. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A among some residents of Maiduguri Borno State Nigeria. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(3): 49-51]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379- 8203 (online). 7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020316.07.
Keywords: Hepatitis A, seroprevalence, competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, Maiduguri, Nigeria 

8. A Machine Learning Approach for Contrast Enhancement of Medical Images
Monali V. Panchal
Department of Computer Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Institute of Technology, Vasad, Gujarat, India.

Abstract: Image contrast enhancement is important in medical applications. This is due to the fact that visual examination of medical images is essential in the diagnosis of many diseases. The proposed method use the applicability of the Neural Network approach for image quality classification using a set of key features extracted from the images. If the image is of low quality then it is enhanced with appropriate contrast enhancement technique. The technique can prevent over-enhancement and enhance small details of an image. We focus on chest x-ray and mammogram images.
[Monali V. Panchal. A Machine Learning Approach for Contrast Enhancement of Medical Images. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(3): 52-60]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020316.08.
Keywords— Contrast; Medical Images; Machine Learning; Enhancement 

9. Antimicrobial Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum

1J. Ladan, 2B.T. Thomas, 1Q.C. Ogueri and 3O.A Oso
1Department of Disease Control and Immunization, National Primary Health Care Development Agency, Abuja 2Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria 3Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-araba, Lagos, Nigeria

Abstract: Bryophyllum pinnatum is a crassulescent herb with wide distribution and documented antimicrobial efficacies. Inconsistence in its activities has however, been suggestively linked with some factors. Hence, this study was carried out to establish the effect of some extrinsic factors on the antibacterial activities of Bryophyllum pinnatum against some disease causing microorganisms. Antibacterial activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum was determined by standard agar-diffusion method. Results from this study showed a significantly higher zone of microbial inhibition with ethanolic extract when compared with aqueous extracts (P<0.05). Conclusion from this study have shown that solvents and concentration of extract are some of the extrinsic factors that influences the antibacterial activities of Bryophyllum pinnatum
[J. Ladan, B.T. Thomas, Q.C. Ogueri and O.A Oso. Antimicrobial Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(3): 61-63]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020316.09. 

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Aqueous,  Ethanolic, microorganisms 

10. Effects of Microwave Radiation on the Germination and early growth of Some Indigenous Cowpea (Vignaunguiculata) Varieties in Nigeria
Salami, A. E.
Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Abstract: The exact biochemical processes by which microwave affects the functioning of living organisms is not very well understood. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of microwave radiation on the germination and early growth of four local cowpea varieties. The experiment consisted of two factors (i) Variety (Oloyin, Drum, Sokoto white and Katsina white) and (ii) Time of exposure of seeds to microwave rays. (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3 minutes). The treatment combination was laid out in a Randomized complete block design with two replicates. Result showed that the time of exposure significantly affected germination percentage, number of leaves and plant height throughout the period of observation. Exposure of seeds for 0.5min consistently had the highest germination from 4 days after planting (DAP), also there was a decline in germination with increase in exposure time above 1 minute. At 8 DAP, 0.5min exposure time had 23.0% better germination percentage than the untreated control. Fur- thermore, there was a 72.9% reduction in germination percentage for seeds that were exposed for 3 minutes compare with the control. Similar trend was observed for number of leaves and plant height. There was also significant (P< 0.05) difference among the varieties with Katsina white having the best germination percentage and drum having the least. These results are suggestive that exposure of cowpea seeds to microwave rays beyond 1 minute can be detri- mental to the germination and early growth of cowpea seeds.
[Salami, A. E. Effects of Microwave Radiation on the Germination and early growth of Some Indigenous Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Varieties in Nigeria. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(3): 64-68]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020316.10.
Keywords: Cowpea, microwave, radiation, germination. 

11. Oral supplementation of aqueous moringa and ginkgo leaf extracts abates oxidative stress and testicular injury associated with boldenone injection in rats
1Ehab Tousson; 2Faten Zahran and 2Mohamed A. Shalapy٭
1Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt. 2Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt. Email:; Tel: 00201064689760

Abstract: Because of their muscle-building and growth-enhancing properties, anabolic androgenic hormones are still illegally administered to food-producing animals. Boldenone is an anabolic androgenic synthetic commercial steroid; that is derived from testosterone which exhibits strong anabolic and moderately androgenic properties. The present study was designed to investigate the possible effect of moringa leaf extract (MLE) and ginkgo leaf extract (GLE) on the changes in the structure and functions of rat testes after boldenone injections. A total of 48 male albino rats weighing 170-200 g and of 10-12 weeks age were divided into 6 groups (8 animals each). 1st Control group includes rats that injected intramuscularly with olive oil. 2nd and 3rd groups were animals received MLE (intragastrically, 200 mg/kg body weight) and GLE (intragastrically, 200 mg/kg body weight) respectively. 4th experimental group include rats that received intramuscular injections of boldenone undecylenate at (5 mg/Kg body weight) for 12 weeks; 5th and 6thgroups where animals intramuscular injected with boldenone and treated with MLE or GLE at the same time respectively. The obtained results indicate that testosterone, testicular MDA and nitric oxide were significantly increased in boldenone group when compared with control group, also, catalase, super oxide dismutase and total thiol in testicular tissue were significantly decreased in boldenone group when compared with control group. The current results indicate that boldenone causes oxidative tissue damage by increasing lipid peroxidation in the testicular tissues and decreasing the level of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, increased testosterone levels with biochemical indicators of testicular damage, and histopathological and cytokeratine immunoreactivity alterations supported this conclusion. It has also been shown that the co-treatment with GLE or with MLE provided significant prophylactic treatment from the testicular damage of boldenone.
[Ehab Tousson; Faten Zahran and Mohamed A. Shalapy. Oral supplementation of aqueous moringa and ginkgo leaf extracts abates oxidative stress and testicular injury associated with boldenone injection in rats. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(3): 69-77]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 11. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020316.11.
Key words: Steroid hormones; Boldenone; Moringa Oleifera; Ginkgo Biloba; Testes; Oxidative stress; Antioxidants; Rats.

12. Treatment of asymptomatic-malaria improves the CD4 cell count of HIV-positive patients in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Ifeyinwa Chijioke-Nwauche1,2, Kala-ada Atemie3
1Department of Immunology & Infection, Faculty of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK
2Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Management, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
3Department of Haematology, Blood Transfusion and Immunology, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Abstract: Malaria infection has been associated with a rise in viral load and a fall in CD4 cell count potentially worsening the clinical course of people with HIV infection. Reports have shown that this viral burden can be partly reduced with antimalarial therapy in some patients. Furthermore, a decrease in response to antimalarial therapy as a result of an impairment of T-cell immunity has been established in immunosuppressed persons. Confirmed asymptomatic-Plasmodium falciparum-positive HIV-infected patients were treated with a complete course of artemether-lumefantrine and their CD4 cell counts before and after treatment were evaluated. Results showed an increase in CD4+ cell count after treatment. PCR data for parasite carriage showed that 50% of the subjects cleared the parasites after treatment. Results suggest that treatment of asymptomatic-malaria improves the immune status of HIV-infected people by increasing the CD4 cell count.
[Ifeyinwa Chijioke-Nwauche, Kala-ada Atemie. Treatment of asymptomatic-malaria improves the CD4 cell count of HIV-positive patients in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(3):78-80]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 12. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020316.12.
Key words: asymptomatic-malaria; artemether-lumefantrine; CD4, Port Harccourt. 

13. Effect of Early Nursing Preparation on Anxiety among Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization
Dr. Samira E. Aboalizm(1), Dr. Nahid F. El Gahsh (2) and Dr. Samah E. Masry (3)
Medical Surgical Nursing, Menoufia University (1, 2, 3) – Egypt

Abstract: When patients are hospitalized for diagnostic methods, including cardiac catheterization, the anxiety increases. Therefore, treating these reactions can speed up recovery and decrease of anxiety that causes cardiac complication. Aim: study evaluates the effect of early nursing preparation on anxiety among patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Design: A quasi experimental research design was utilized. Setting: conducted at the Cardiac Catheterization Unit of Menoufia University Hospital, Menoufia Governorate, Shebien El-Kom, Egypt. Subjects: A purposive sample of 100 adult patients of both sexes who were admitted to the cardiac catheterization unit. Tools: two tools were utilized. Tool I: cardiac catheterization patients needs assessment: structured interviewing scheduled questionnaire, consisted of the following: Part 1: Sociodemographic and clinical data. Part II: Cardiac Catheterization Knowledge Assessment Sheet. Tool II: Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAM-A). Results: the study group had better knowledge than control group. there were statistical significant differences were existed between study and control group regarding the anxiety level at day and post procedure at P values = 0.0001. There were highly statistically significant difference and correlation existed between anxiety and age, gender and level of education at p value= 0.0001. There was a significant correlation between knowledge and anxiety scores at P value= 0.004. Conclusion: it can be concluded that, the early preparation and gave patients’ information before cardiac catheterization improve patients’ knowledge and reduced anxiety.
[Samira E. Aboalizm, Nahid F. El Gahsh and Samah E. Masry. Effect of Early Nursing Preparation on Anxiety among Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(3): 81-93]. ISSN 2379- 8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 13. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020316.13.
Key words: Nursing Preparation, Anxiety, Cardiac Catheterization  

14. Enhancing the dyability of Linen fabrics to Metal Complex dye using Nitrogenous additives
El-Zairy,W.M.R *
*Textile printing, dyeing and finishing dept., Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Giza, Egypt. (

Abstract: Chemical modification of linen fabric via cationization with chitosan as well as Quat-188 has been recently studied. Desirable properties are imparted to linen fabric which render to the patter cationic in nature having a persistent positive charges and can thereby lead to the formation of ionic bonds "salt linkages" with negatively charged has no affinity for cellulosic fibers. Heriene, the former anionic dyes-class can successfully be dyed cationized linen fabric using no salt dyeing method resulting higher dye fixation as well as deep color yield (K/S), which is unequivocally due to electrostatic attraction of the dye molecules towards cationic sites in cationizated linen fabrics. The color fastness ratings of the dyed aminized linen fabrics recovered very good results which is refer to the highly dye fixation on the modified substrate.
[El-Zairy, W.M.R. Enhancing the dyability of Linen fabrics to Metal Complex dye using Nitrogenous additives. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(3): 94-100]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 14. doi:10.7537/marsbnj020316.14.
Key words : linen, metal complex dyes, dyeing, chitosan,Quat-188, cationization. 

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