ISSN 2379-8203

​​​​​​​​​​Biomedicine and Nursing
Volume 2 - Issue 1 (Cumulated No. 4), March 25, 2016. (cover)

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1. Does Integron-Coded Protein structure Depicts Simplicifolious and Non Simplicifolious Relationship?
1B.T. Thomas, 2D.S.K. Olanrewaju-Kehinde, 3E.S James, 4A. Davies, 1R.M. Kolawole and 2O.D. Popoola

1Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria

3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria

4Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

Abstract: The study evaluated the association between evolutionary relationship and the protein structure of class 1 integron-coded proteins of Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcenscens. The prediction of the secondary structure of the class 1 integron coded protein was carried out using SOPMA tool. Results of the NCBI queries revealed significant identity with class 1 integron of the studied Organisms. The nucleotide sequence alignment depicted lesser numbers of conserved regions with varying degree of transitions, transversions, insertions and deletions. The isolates contained comparatively higher random coils and alpha helix than both extended strands and the Beta turn which were present in less percentages ranging from 17.46-22.42% and 11.48-8.56% respectively. In conclusion, this study confirmed a very strong association between the protein structure and the simplificifolius relationship observed in this study
[B.T. Thomas, D.S.K. Olanrewaju-Kehinde, E.S James, A. Davies, R.M. Kolawole and O.D. Popoola. Does Integron Coded Protein structure Depicts Simplicifolious and Non Simplicifolious Relationship? Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(1):1-3]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj02011601
Keywords: Integron; Protein Structure; Simplicifolious, Relationship.

2. Conjugal Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
1B.T. Thomas, 2D.S.K. Olanrewaju-Kehinde, 3E.S. James, 4A. Davies, 2O.A. Omolade and 2O.D. Popoola
1Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria

3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria

4Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

Abstract: This study determined the conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance gene among clinical strains of plasmid carrying Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The plasmid sizes range from 800bp to 25000bp while eighteen different plasmid profiles were encountered. 10.8% of the strains (8) presented profile 1, 2.7% of the strains (2) presented profile 2, 4, 8 and 17. 16.2% of the strains (12) presented profile 3, 4.05% of the strains (3) presented profile 5, 9, 11, 14, 15 and 18. 6.8% of the strains (5) presented profile 6 and 10. 8.1% of the strains (6) presented profile 7 and 5.4% of the strains (4) presented profile 12, 13 and 16. The antibiotic resistance patterns transferred from three of the five donor strains to the transconjugants were partial and were associated with the transfer of R plasmids of sizes 24, 23, 4, 2, 25kbp. The frequencies of transfer of R plasmids to the transconjugants ranged from 1.4×10−5 to 1.7×10−7 per donor strains
[B.T. Thomas, D.S.K. Olanrewaju-Kehinde, E.S. James, A. Davies, O.A. Omolade and O.D. Popoola. Conjugal Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(1): 4-7]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj02011602
Keywords: Conjugation, Antibiotics, Resistance, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

3. Histopathological Analysis of Endometrial Biopsies From Women With Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
Bashar A. Hassawi1 , Gina J.Georges2 , Hayat S. Ahmed3
1. Assistant Professor. Department of Anatomy. College of Medicine. University of Duhok.

2. Lecturer, Department of Pathology. College of Medicine. University of Duhok.
3. Assistant Lecturer. Department of Anatomy. College of Medicine. University of Duhok.

Abstract: Background: Histopathological evaluation of endometrial samples is essential in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding. The abnormal bleeding can be caused by a wide variety of disorders and it is one of the commonest complaints leading to endometrial sampling. This study was carried out to assess the patterns of endometrial histological findings in women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) and to correlate these findings with clinical features. Materials and Methods: One thousand and nine hundred fifty six patients with diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding underwent endometrial sampling in Duhok city during a period extended from January 2013 to December 2014. The slides stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain were studied. Results: The predominant endometrial histopathological finding was pregnancy related lesion (Retained products of conception) 403 cases (20.6%) followed by secretory endometrium 363 cases (18.5%). Malignant lesions were more common in patients aged 40 years and more and they were comprised 9 cases (0.4%) of all cases. Endometritis was least finding 29 cases (1.8%) followed by endometrial carcinoma 9 cases (0.4%). Conclusions: Histopathological examination of endometrium should be done in women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding to rule out non neoplastic specially the retained products of conception, hyperplasia and malignant lesions. Around 40% of endometrial biopsy reaveled absence of pathological findings which reflects the high icidence of extrauterine causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. Pregnancy related lesions were the highest among organic findings which highlight the needs for more perinatal care.
[Bashar A. Hassawi, Gina J.Georges, Hayat S. Ahmed. Histopathological Analysis of Endometrial Biopsies From Women With Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(1): 8-11]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj02011603
Keywords: Endometrium, bleeding, uterus, hyperplasia, proliferative, secretory and carcinoma.

4.Microbial Quality and Associated Public Health Hazards of Raw Cow’s Milk Produced and Marketed in Ethiopia: A Review
Teshome Gemechu
Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Mizan-Tepi University, P.O. Box 260, Mizan-Tepi, Ethiopia
Phone Number: +251-910420141

Abstract: The aim of this review was to combine the earlier works on microbial quality and associated public health hazards of raw cow’s milk produced and marketed in Ethiopia. Milk is a food of good nutritional value which ensures benefits from its consumption. Being a nutritional, balanced foodstuff, milk is a well-known medium that favours the growth of several microorganisms. The public health hazards are posed by milk-borne zoonotic diseases. The safety of dairy products with respect to food-borne disease is a great concern around the world. This is especially true in developing countries where production of milk and various milk products takes place under unsanitary conditions and poor production practice. In fact, the detection of food-borne pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aureus and Streptococcus species have been reported by several authors in raw milk samples. Milk produced at smallholders farm in Ethiopia is marketed without any form of pasteurization or quality control measures. According to former reports, about 71- 97% milk produced in Ethiopia were consumed through an informal market. In addition, there is no formal quality control system in place to monitor and control the quality of raw milk produced and marketed in Ethiopia. Therefore, it was concluded that the microbial quality of raw cow’s milk produced and marketed in Ethiopia was poor and having public health significance. This suggests the need for improved hygienic practices and handling of milk at all levels of milk market chain.
[Teshome Gemechu. Microbial Quality and Associated Public Health Hazards of Raw Cow’s Milk Produced and Marketed in Ethiopia: A review. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(1): 12-21]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj02011604
Key words: Microbial Quality, Public Health Hazards, Raw Cow Milk.

5. The relation of depression, anxiety and stress with personal characteristics of nurses in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran
E Khodadadi 1, *, M Hosseinzadeh 2, R Azimzadeh, MScN 3, M Fooladi 4
1& 2 Ph.D. Candidate in Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
3 Master of Science in Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Urmieh University of Medical Sciences, Urmieh, Iran.
4 Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing, University of Texas at El Paso, College of Health Sciences, School of Nursing, USA.
Tel: +98-9143481951, Fax: +98- 41334796969, E-mail

Abstract: Background: The current industrialized world and ever advancing technology has changed human life by a significant increase in the level of stress and anxiety. Nurses are among those professionals who experience an overwhelming level of stress, anxiety and depression due to work overload and subsequent burnout. The nature of nursing profession for a vulnerable human character increases the possibility of emotional setbacks. Hence, this study was designed to explore and identify the prevalence of anxiety, stress and depression among the Iranian nurses and investigate how these variables relate to personal characteristics and influence the quality of patient care. Materials & Methods: Using a correlational descriptive design and random cluster method, 242 nurses who worked at different hospital wards in Tabriz, Iran were assessed for anxiety, stress and depression, while their personal characteristics were identified. Data were collected by using a standard questionnaire for stress, anxiety and depression (DASS-21) and later analyzed by SPSS (ver.17). Results: Results showed that Iranian nurses suffered from a moderate level of anxiety, stress and depression and gender influenced these variable rates (p<0/05). Hospital ward type had a relation with stress level (p<0/05), being interested in nursing had an inverse relation to anxiety, stress and depression (p<0/05), while the education level positively related to depression rate among nurses (p<0/05). Type of work at different shifts influenced stress (p<0/05) and marital status reduced depression among nurses (p<0/05). Conclusions: Prevalence of stress and anxiety among the Iranian nurses were at a significant level with susceptibility to experience psychological disorders and provide lower quality of patient care. Findings of this study can alarm the Iranian authorities in healthcare systems to adopt a new policy and improve the current state of health for nurses and patients.

​[ , M Hosseinzadeh, R Azimzadeh, MScN, M Fooladi. The relation of depression, anxiety and stress with personal characteristics of nurses in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(1): 22-30]. 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj02011605
Keywords: stress; anxiety; depression; nursing.

6. Evaluation of the Role of Displacement Surgery in the Management of Congenital Nystagmus.
Faried. M. wagdy (MD)1, Mohamed E. Ismail (M.B.B.Ch), Abd Elrahman E.S (MD)
1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufeya University, Egypt. Telephone: 1001227987; E-Mail Address: faried.wagdy@hotmail

Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of displacement surgery in damping of ocular oscillation and management of compensatory head posture in patients of congenital nystagmus. Methods: Fifteen patients with congenital nystagmus that dampens in a certain direction of gaze with or without abnormal head posture and with or without strabismus. Patients underwent the augmented modified Kestenbaum (augmented parks) procedure. Results: In this study 12 patients (80%) were noticed clinically to have damping of nystagmus while 3 patients (20%) had no damping of nystagmus. Twelve patients (80.0%) had no post operative abnormal head position, while 3 patients (20.0%) had residual abnormal head position. There was a statistically significant difference between the pre- operative BCVA in primary position and post-operative BCVA in primary position (P-value = 0.001 for Right eye & P-value = 0.001 for Left eye). Conclusion: The displacement surgeries (e.g. Kestanbaum procedure) for the treatment of patients with congenital nystagmus is an effective procedure for correction of abnormal head posture, improving the visual acuity in the primary position and damping of nystagmusin patients with congenital nystagmus who has null points away from the primary position.
[Faried. M. wagdy, Mohamed.E. Ismail, Abd Elrahman E.S. Evaluation of the role of displacement surgery in the management of congenital nystagmus. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(1): 31-38]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj02011606
Key words: Nystagmus– Abnormal head posture –tenotomy– Immobilizationsurgery- displacement surgery.

7. Evaluating the effect of Acacia Modesta Leaves Extract on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids, Liver and Kidney Functions in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats
Nisar Khan, Mushtaq Ahmed, Rahmet Ali Khan, Shahtamas Khan, Sana Gul Department of Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology Bannu, 28100, KPK, Pakistan,

Abstract: Objective: In the present study a traditional medicinal plant, Acacia modesta leaves extract was assessed in alloxan induced diabetic rats to reveal the anti-diabetic activity and serum lipids, hepatic and renal functions, total bilirubin and total proteins. Acacia modesta leaves extract was administered orally (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) to six groups of albino rats for three weeks. The effects of Acacia modesta on blood glucose were studied and the levels of serum lipids, liver enzymes and kidney parameters were estimated and compared with standard drug glibenclamide. Results: Treatment with Acacia modesta leaves extract and glibenclamide resulted in significantly reduced blood glucose in 200 mg/kg body weight (75.674%) and 200 mg/kg body weight (73.565%) in comparison with controls. There was a significant decrease in serum lipids, liver enzymes and kidney parameters in both low and high doses when compared to diabetic controls. The results suggest that the methanol extract of Acacia modesta leaves possess anti-diabetic activity by decreasing the plasma blood glucose level, with subsequent increase in body weight. The serum profiles of lipids (triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL and serum HDL levels), liver (ALT, ALP and total bilirubin), kidney (Urea and Creatinin) and total protein also significantly (p<0.05) recovered to normal level with extract. The results indicate the possibility that this could be effective plant extract to retard or prevent diabetes and the development of complications of diabetes.
[Nisar Khan, Mushtaq Ahmed, Rahmet Ali Khan, Shahtamas Khan, Sana Gul. Evaluating the effect of Acacia modesta leaves extract on blood glucose, serum Lipids, liver and kidney functions in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(1): 39-45]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj02011607
Key words; Allaxon, Acacia modesta, anti-diabetic, serum lipids, kidney profile, liver enzymes, total bilirubin

8. Refugees’ Perceptions of about HIV and AIDS in Ba-Phalaborwa Municipality at Limpopo Province, SouthAfrica
HE Nkwinika1, Prof LB Khoza 2, Dr RT Lebese 3, Mrs. HN Shilubane4
1Lulekani Health Centre, Ba-Phalaborwa, South Africa
2Department of Advanced Nursing science, University of Venda, Limpopo Province, South Africa, Private bag x5050, Thohoyandou0950
3Department of Advanced Nursing science, University of Venda Limpopo, Province, South Africa, P.O Box 3198, Giyani, 0826
4Department of Advanced Nursing science, University of Venda, Limpopo Province, South Africa, Private bag x5050, Thohoyandou0950

Abstract: The research aimed at exploring and describing the perceptions of the refugees at Humulani village in the Ba-Phalaborwa municipality about HIV and AIDS. The objectives including determining the gender perceptions about HIV and AIDS and also providing recommendations for ways to increase the refugees understanding of HIV and AIDS. The approach used for the research was a quantitative approach. The target population of the study was all the refugees at Humulani village. The sample comprised of both males (78) and females (122) who participated by completing questionnaires. The sample of the refugees consisted of different ethnic groups from Mozambique, Nigeria, Ghana and Zimbabwe. The questionnaire consisted of three sections, section A, B and C. the findings of the study revealed that the participants had low levels of knowledge regarding HIV and AIDS which could be attributed to their possession of false myths about HIV and AIDS. The HIV-infected refugee population in Limpopo may continue to grow if the unique needs of the refugees such as strengthening the reproductive health services, maternal and child care and family planning, improving the educational and socio-economic status is not given attention. [Nkwinika HE, Khoza LB, Lebese RT, Shilubane HN . Refugees’ perceptions of about HIV and AIDS in Ba- Phalaborwa Municipality at Limpopo Province, South Africa. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(1): 46-54]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj02011608
Key words: Refugees, perception, HIV, AIDS.

9. A study on Biological Control of Coffee Antestia Bugs “Antestiopsis Lineaticolis” by Using Beauveria Bassiana in Rwanda
Alphonse Nahayo1,*Joseph Bayisenge1
1. Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry (ISAE)-Busogo; Department of Forestry and Nature
Conservation, P.O.Box 210 Musanze, Rwanda, email:

Abstract: This study was conducted for contributing to the production of quality coffee free of pest damage and pesticide residues. Antestia bug is reported among insect pests that reduce coffee yield and quality as well. It is supposed that the use of natural enemies do not disturb ecosystem. With the same perspective, this study aiming at controlling coffee antestia bug “Antestiopsis lineaticolis’’ using Beauveria bassiana fungus» was carried out in Rwanda Agricultural Board Rubona station labolatories with CG432 strain in the period of 1st July and 31 September, 2011. During this research we multiplicated Beauveria bassiana on synthetic cultural media (PDA and NA); we tested the viability rate of newly produced and old inoculum of B. bassiana and we tested the efficacy of bio-insecticide produced from B. bassiana to control coffee antestia bug. The results showed that Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) with controlled temperature (28oC) and in liquid medium favors mass multiplication of B.bassiana. The produced fungus spores (2kgs) were viable at 95% against 40% of old fungus spores. The average of died antestia bugs per day due to Dursban and B. bassiana produced as bio-insecticide showed that they are in the same homogenous group. With the last results, it is possible to substitute Dursban by bio-insecticide produced because it conserves the ecosystem more than the first one. Considering the fast antesia bugs eliminating, Dursban showed high significant difference to eliminate them. We found that it is necessary to pay attention while applying B. bassiana as bio-insecticide because it loses rapidly its viability rate with time and that it requires the adequate good temperature to normally work. It is recommended to all coffee stakeholders to set different measures which can promote the use of natural enemies’ especially B. bassiana to control antestia bug and other different insect pests in order to conserve agro- ecosystem and humans.
[Nahayo A., Bayisenge J. A study on biological control of coffee antestia bugs “Antestiopsis lineaticolis” by using Beauveria bassiana in Rwanda. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(1): 55-63]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj02011609
Keywords: Biological control, Antestiopsis lineaticolis, Beauveria bassiana, Coffee, Rwanda

10. Comparing Impact of Two Types of The Exercising Preparation Programs On Indices of The Body Composition And Muscular Injuries Biomarkers Among Soccer Slayers
Gholamhasan jafarzadeh1, Mohammad Nasiri2
Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Iran
2Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Central Tehran branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran Corresponding Author:
Mobile: +98 9169714048

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the specific physiological effects of general preparation phases on the injured muscle blood biomarkers in elite soccer players before the competition. Thus, 22 elite football players have participated in this study. During this study in two stages, the blood sample collection was done before and after the general preparation phase, then before of the competition and the pre-seasonal matches. The collected data were studied by using the statistical method of correlated t test at significance level of 0.05 (α = 0.05). Results showed that there was no significant reduction in amount of the musculoskeletal masses of football players before and after of the various trainings phases (general and specific exercise ahead of the matches); and, there was indeed a significant reduction in amount of the body mass values after different training phases than before the general preparation phase. In addition, there was a significant increases in CPK values before and after the different training phases among the soccer players. And finally; there was a significant increases in LDH values before and after the different training phases in among the soccer players.
[Gholamhasan jafarzadeh, Mohammad Nasiri. Comparing Impact of Two Types of The Exercising Preparation Programs On Indices of The Body Composition And Muscular Injuries Biomarkers Among Soccer Slayers. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(1): 64-66]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj02011610
Key words: Biomarkers of the injured muscle; Rhabdomyolysis; Cretin kinas, Musculoskeletal structural injuries.

11.Phytochemicals and Hypertension
1Akram kooshki, 2Mahmood Rivandi
1. Asistan professor, Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran
2 Master science in Organic Chemistry, Bureau of Education, Sabzevar, Iran

Abstract: Hypertension is above the systolic blood pressure above 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure greater than 90mmHg or both. It is that can be controlled by diet containing an adequate supply of phytochemicals. The article is based on non-systematic literature searches in PubMed, Ovid and Sciencedirect and ISC. Hypertension is one of the major chronic diseases that can affect people around the world. Today's DASH diet (dietary approach to stop hypertension) is used to reduce and control blood pressure. The diet containing plenty of fruits, vegetables, nuts and whole grains that also contain nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and non- nutrient elements are called phytochemical. Phytochemicals are materials at very low concentrations, effect on the expression of many genes, including transcription factors AP-1, NF-Kappa B, SREBPs, PPARs and their cellular metabolism and gene regulation and they have antioxidant properties and anti-hypertensive effects. Moreover, increased intake of phytochemicals is associated to reduction of death from disease cardiovascular diseases, stroke and damage secondary to hypertension. Possible mechanisms of action of phytochemicals in reducing blood pressure are including of inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme and inactivation bradikinin and regulation of bioavailability of nitrous oxide. In conclusions based on the results, increased intake of phytochemicals in daily diet is associated with the opposite of death from heart disease - coronary, stroke and damage secondary to hypertension. [Kooshki A, Rivandi M. Phytochemicals and hypertension. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(1): 67-70]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 11. doi:10.7537/marsbnj02011611

Key words: hypertension, phytochemicals, plant foods, poly phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids

12. Comparative Surface Architecture Of The Adhesive Apparatus Epidermis Of Garra Gotyla (Hamilton) (Hill-Stream Fish) Of Kumaun Himalaya.
S. C. Joshi 1, Ila Bisht 2 and S. K. Agarwal 2
1 Department of Zoology, Surajmal Agarwal Girls P.G. College, Kichha (K. U., Nainital) 263148, India.

2Department of Zoology, S.S.J. Campus, Almora, Kumaun University, Nainital – 263601, India.

Abstract: The epithelial cells have been demonstrated in the epidermis of adhesive apparatus of Garra gotyla (Hamilton), by scanning electron microscope methods, to study its structural and functional organization with special reference to adhesion. The epidermis of mental adhesive apparatus of G. gotyla is smooth and uniform in thickness at flat circular part and is papilliated at posterolateal part. The epidermis of flat circular part of G. gotyla equipped with epithelial cells and mucous cells. The epidermis of posterolateral part in G. gotyla consists of mainly keratinized cells. The secretion of amount of mucus by the epidermis covering the groove regions separating the flat circular part anteriorly from posterior lip and posterolaterally from its posterolateral part is significant. This might help in maintaining the vacuum creating by the muscles under margins and thus preventing the entrance of water and air. G. gotyla are fresh water teleosts these fish inhabit water resources in hills which are shallow, well aerated and clear and contain plenty of food in the form of algal slime covering stones and rocks. The strength of water current in these water resources are much higher compared to those of the rivers of plains. These fishes usually cling to the rocky substratum with the help of their modified skin. The epidermis of mental adhesive apparatus is smooth and uniform in thickness at flat circular part and is papilliated at posterolateal part.
[S. C. Joshi, Ila Bisht and S. K. Agarwal. Comparative Surface Architecture Of The Adhesive Apparatus Epidermis Of Garra Gotyla (Hamilton) (Hill-Stream Fish) Of Kumaun Himalaya. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(1): 71-75]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 12. doi:10.7537/marsbnj02011612
Key Word: Adhesive apparatus, Epidermal cell, Garra gotyla, and SEM. 

13. Mode of Action of Medicinal Plants on Diabetic Disorders
Elahe Seyed Hoseyni1, Hamed Haddad Kashani2, Mahmoodi3*
1Research Center for Sciences and Biotechnology, Lavizan, Tehran. Iran 
2Anatomical Sciences Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran E-mail:; Tel: 0098-9137430153

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a systemic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperlipedemia, hyperaminoacidemia, and hypoinsulinaemia it leads to decrease in both insulin secretion and insulin action, along with varying degrees of peripheral resistance to the action of insulin. The long-term effects of impaired glucose regulation can lead to permanent organ damage, such as cardiovascular disease, and disabilities. Nowadays, there is growing interest in medicinal herbs due to the side effects associated with the therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In addition therapeutic action of herbal medicines is due to the herbal ingredients mechanism, bioactive compounds of most of the plants have been isolated and identified. However, mechanisms of action of most plants and their products that used for lowering of blood glucose remain unknown. in this study by searching in different sources and references such as Pub Med, MEDLINE, CNKI, EMBASE, Wiley Inter Science, Elsevier data bases, tried to express mode of action some common medicinal herbs that have important role in lowering of blood glucose and diabetics recovery.
[Elahe Seyed Hoseyni, Hamed Haddad Kashani, Mahmoodi. Mode of action of medicinal plants on diabetic disorders. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(1): 76-84]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 13. doi:10.7537/marsbnj02011613
Key words: Diabetic, Medicinal plant, Mechanism, Bioactive, Metabolism, Insulin.

14. Evaluation of the Enzymes of Liver and Hematological Values in Life Saving Women
Nahid Bijeh (PhD)1, Amir Rashid lamir (PhD)1, Samaneh Sadeghynia (Msc)2, Keyvan Hejazi (Msc)*2
1. Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2. Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IRAN

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the Evaluation of the enzymes of liver and Hematological values in life saving women. Twenty one healthy female were selected by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into two experimental (n=15) and control (n=6) groups. The exercise protocol included long-term swimming training lasted for eight weeks and 3 sessions per week and every session lasted for 60 to 90 minutes with intensity of 65-85 percent of maximum heart rate reserve (MHR). Blood samples were taken to measure serum hepatic enzymes and hematological values before and after swimming training period. Data were analyzed by parametric(Paired Samples, Independent-Samples t-test) and nonparametric (Wilcocxon and Mann-Whitney U test) for compared within and between groups; and the level of significance was set at P< 0.05. The level of WBC, RBC, Hb and Hct in exercise group towards the end of period of the training increased significantly. Also, there were no significant differences between groups in the levels of WBC, Hb, PLT, AST and ALT. The variance between group RBC and Hb were significant. Although, the levels of serum AST and ALT levels reduce at the end of the eight weeks swimming training, but these changes did not significantly. The liver function parameters, AST and ALT, were decreased after eight weeks swimming training. These findings highlight the importance of imposing restrictions on swimming training and during clinical studies. Future examinations are now essential to clarify the effectiveness of exercise on various parameters.
[Nahid Bijeh, Amir Rashid lamir, Samaneh Sadeghynia, Keyvan Hejazi. Evaluation of the enzymes of liver and Hematological values in life saving women. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(1): 85-90]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 14. doi:10.7537/marsbnj02011614
Keywords: Hematological values, Hepatic Enzymes, Swimming training 

​​15. Effect of Concurrent Training on Leptin, C - Reactive Protein and HOMA-IR in Overweight Men
Bahram Abedi1, Mohsen Akbarpour Beni2, Mohsen Assar Zadeh Noosh Abadi3, Davood Khorshidi4
1- Departments of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Islamic azad University, Mahallat Branch, Mahallat, IRAN

2- Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Qom, Qom, IRAN, +989131839198
3- Departments of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Mobarakeh Branch, Mobarakeh, IRAN.
4- Departments of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Islamic azad University, Saveh Branch, Saveh, IRAN.

Abstract: Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of concurrent endurance and resistance training on serum leptin, C-reactive protein (CPR) and insulin-resistance index (HOMA-IR) among overweight men. Methods and Materials: The present research method was a semi-experimental study. 30 overweight men (age of 20.9±1.9 years old and BMI of 26.47±0.75 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to experimental (20 people) and control (10 people) groups. The experimental group performed concurrent training (aerobic activity: 60 to 70% of maximal oxygen consumption for 20 min and resistance activity: 2 sets with one repetition or 70% of 1 repetition maximum for 12 weeks) while the control group did not do any physical activity. At the end of concurrent training, blood samples were taken from the experimental group. Leptin, C-reactive protein (CPR) and insulin- resistance indicator were measured before and after 12 weeks of training. Results: At the end of the twelfth week, a significant decrease was observed in serum CPR (1.45±0.27 versus 1.39±0.3 mg/l, P<0.05), leptin (7.27±0.68 versus 7.24±0.65 ng/ml, P<0.05) and insulin-resistance indicator (1.6±0.14 versus 1.5±0.23, P<0.05). Conclusion: Concurrent endurance-resistance training program can have a positive effect on the concentration of insulin- resistance, C-reactive protein and leptin of serum. Therefore, it is recommended that doing concurrent training can be a suitable method for developing glucose transport into muscle cells; also, regulating the secretion of leptin and C-reactive protein can be most probably a preventive method for postponing cardiovascular diseases and type-2 diabetes in overweight men.
[Bahram Abedi, Mohsen Akbarpour Beni, Mohsen Assar Zadeh Noosh Abadi, Davood Khorshidi. Effect of Concurrent Training on Leptin, C - reactive protein and HOMA-IR in Overweight Men. Biomedicine and Nursing 2016;2(1): 91-98]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 15. doi:10.7537/marsbnj02011615
Key words: Concurrent Training, Leptin, CPR, Insulin-resistance index

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