ISSN 2379-8203


​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Biomedicine and Nursing
Volume 3 - Issue 2 (Cumulated No. 9), June 26, 2017. (COVER)

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1. Major Health and Welfare Problems of Camels in Dire Dawa Administration Council, Eastern Ethiopia
Jabir Teha1, Lishan Asefa1, Tadesse Birhanu1, 2* and Ayele Gizachew1
1School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Wollega University, P.O. Box:395, Nekemte, Ethiopia.
2 Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Salale University, P.O. Box: 245, Fitche, Ethiopia *Corresponding author:

Abstract: A cross sectional study was conducted from October, 2014 to April, 2015at selected districts of Dire Dawa administrative council, eastern Ethiopia to determine the major health and welfare problems of camel. Among 393 inspected camels, 38.4% were suffering from major health problems like enteritis (albatii) (23.9%), Cephalopina titillator larvae (Digir) (23.9%), camel contagious ecthzeyma (Afcarro) (13.2%), pneumonia (Qufa) (9.10%) and dermatophilosis (Citto) (8.90%). The study also indicated that overloading (33%), lack of feed and water (15%) and poor attitude (12%) were the main welfare problems in the study area. There was also an association between sex and working activities, a higher proportion of males (79.0%) were engaged in loading than females (27.0%)which was statistically significant (p=0.00). The informants of this study were indicated parasites, pneumonia and enteritis were the major health problems whereas overworking, malnutrition and poor attention were the major problems in study area. Thus, strategic community education should be done in order to improve management system of the camel.
[Jabir Teha, Lishan Asefa, Tadesse Birhanu and Ayele Gizachew. Major Health and Welfare Problems of Camels in Dire Dawa Administration Council, Eastern Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(2): 1-5]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030217.01.
Key words: Camel, Dire Dawa Town, Group Discussion, Health Problem, Welfare Problem 

2. Prevalence of Bovine flukes in Irrigation Canals of Amibara District, Afar Region, North-East Ethiopia
Tsegaye Bertualem2, Tesfaye Kassa1 and Tadesse Birhanu1, 3*
1Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, P.O.Box: 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Wollega University, P.O. Box:395, Nekemte, Ethiopia.
3Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Salale University, P.O. Box: 245, Fitche, Ethiopia *Corresponding author:

Abstract: A cross-sectional study was carried out from November to April, 2016 in irrigation canals of Amibara District of Afar Region, Ethiopia with the aim of determining the prevalence of major bovine flukes. Simple random sampling was used to select both the study animals and Peasant Associations. Coprological examination using sedimentation technique was applied for the recovery of the flukes’ eggs from freshly collected fecal samples. The collected data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS 21 version software. Out of the total 400 fecal samples examined, 183 (45.8%) were infected with bovine flukes infection. The prevalence of Paramphistoma, Fasciola and Schistosoma bovis was 15.3%, 9.5% and 7.3%, respectively in the study area. The result indicated that the prevalence of the flukes was higher in females (46.3%) than males (42.4%). It was also slightly higher in young (< 2 years) cattle (46.4%) than adult ones (>2 years) (43.9%). Among the associated risk factors, the highest prevalence of infection with flukes was observed poor body condition animals (63.4%) and statistical significant difference was observed with the occurrence of flukes infection (p<0.05). There were mixed infection: Fasciolosis and Paraphistomosis, 31 (7.75%); Paraphistomosis and Schistosomiasis, 7 (1.75%); Fasciolosis and Schistosomiasis, 11 (2.75%) and Fasciolosis, Paraphistomosis and Schistosomiasis, 6 (1.50%) in study area. This study indicated that bovine flukes are the major cattle parasites in the study area. Thus, awareness creation should be done for the livestock owners about intermediate host (snail) and strategic deworming in order to reduce pasture contamination. Moreover; further study on snail dynamics and infection rates should be conducted so as to design effective prevention and control strategies.
[Tsegaye Bertualem, Tesfaye Kassa and Tadesse Birhanu. Prevalence of Bovine flukes in Irrigation Canals of Amibara District, Afar Region, North-East Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(2): 6-11]. ISSN 2379- 8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030217.02.
Keyword: Amibara, Bovine, Coprology, Ethiopia, Flukes, Sedimentation Test 

3. Review On Bovine Hydatidosis
Geda Shendo1, Birhanu Ayele2, Mengestie Abebaw1 and Genene Girma1
1 Faculity of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health science, University of Gondar, P.O. Box. 196, Gondar, Ethiopia, 2 Lecturer at University of Gondar, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Paraclinical studies, Faculty of Vet Medicine, University of Gondar, P.O. Box. 196, Gondar, Ethiopia,

Abstract: Echinococcosis (Hydatidosis) is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage (hydatid cyst) of E. granulosus. The disease spread when food or water that contains infective stage of the parasite is eaten or by close contact with infected animal. Bovine Echinococcosis is worldwide in its distribution with only few areas supposed to be free of the disease. Dogs are the primary definitive hosts for this parasite, while livestock and human beings acting as intermediate hosts. The disease poses significant threat in human health and livestock economy. The public health significances lies on the cost of hospitalization, medical and surgical fees, loss of income and productivity, permanent or temporary incapacity to work. In food animals, Echinococcosis causes decreased production of meat, milk, and wool, reduction in growth rate, and predisposition to other diseases. Targeting the major risk factors for the disease and the way it is transmitted, interrupting the life cycle, destroying the reservoir host and improved water sanitation is the most effective way in controlling and prevention of the disease.
[Geda Shendo, Birhanu Ayele, Mengestie Abebaw and Genene Girma. Review On Bovine Hydatidosis. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(2): 12-23]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030217.03.
Key words; Cattle, Economic importance, Hydatidosis 

4. Human Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Biomarker in Patients with Acute Chest Pain
El-Saeid, M. E. El-Bawab, Mohammad Mohammad Abolfotoh, Abdelzaher M.H*, Hussein M. Eldeeb and Sayed Fathy Ali
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt

Abstract: Human Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (H-FABP), a small (15kDa) cytoplasmic tissue specific protein, is mainly expressed by myocytes. Aim: The aim of this work is to compare between (H-FABP) as a sensitive biomarker than other traditional biomarkers for early differential diagnosis of acute chest pain. Methods: This study was carried out on 60 subjects and classified into four groups; Control group, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), unstable angina (UA) and Non cardiac chest pain (NCCP). We assessed serum levels of LDH, Tropinin-I, CK-MB, H-FABP and Myoglobin. Results: We found that Serum H-FABP was significantly higher in AMI and UA in comparison with control and NCCP groups (P<0.05). Serum H-FABP differentiated between AMI group & UA group at cut off 22.35 ng/ml with sensitivity 85%, specificity 70 %, and over all accuracy 81.2%. Serum H-FABP differentiated between AMI group cases of 0 – 3 hours, as it has the highest sensitivity of the studied cardiac markers. Conclusion: This study showed that Measurement of serum H-FABP can be used in early differential diagnosis of acute chest pain patients.
[El-Saeid, M. E. El-Bawab, Mohammad Mohammad Abolfotoh, Abdelzaher M.H*, Hussein M. Eldeeb and Sayed Fathy Ali. Human Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Biomarker in Patients with Acute Chest Pain. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(2): 24-30]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030217.04.
Keywords: Heart Type-Fatty Acid Binding Protein (H-FABP), acute chest pain, Myocardial infarction, cardiac Biomarkers. 

5. Traditional Medicinal Plants Used in Ethiopia for Animal Diseases Treatment
Abebe Mequanent 1, Getinet Ayalew 2, Habtamu Addis 1
1 University of Gondar College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Gondar, Ethiopia, P.o. Box: 196
2University of Gondar, college of computational and natural science, department of biotechnology E-mail:

Summary: Traditional medicines have been used for nearly 90% of livestock populations in Ethiopia where complimentary remedies are required to the modern health care system. All plants with pharmacological activity complimentarily prescribed as best choice against livestock diseases. Availability of veterinary services is a major constraint in the arid areas of Ethiopia. The government resources to run veterinary practices do not meet the rising costs of within the veterinary sector. An increasing number of pastoralists are turning to Ethnoveterinary medicine. Ethnoveterinary practices concern to animal healthcare is as old as the domestication of various livestock species. They comprise belief, knowledge, practices and skills pertaining to healthcare and management of livestock. Substances or medicinal plants used for Ethnoveterinary treatments include, Whistling thorn (Grar), White albizia (Bisna), Garlic (nech shinkurt), Aloe (Iret), Desert date (Goza), Hot pepper (Berbere), Papaya (Papaya), Carissa (Agam), Velvet-leaved combretum (Avalo), Broad-leaved croton (Bisana), Devils’s trumpet (At’efaris), Lemon- scented gum (Shito-barzaf), Tree euphorbia (K’ulk’wal), Lantana (Yemichi-medihanit/ Kese), Microglossa (Nech’i- weyinagift), Tobacco plant (Timbaho), Sodom apple (Imbway), Ginger (Jinjibil) and Tree vernonia (Grawa) were used.
[Abebe M, Getinet A, Habtamu A. Traditional Medicinal Plants Used in Ethiopia for Animal Diseases Treatment. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(2): 31-41]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030217.05.
Key words: Medicine, Ethnoveterinary medicine, medicinal plants.

6. Review on Subclinical Endometritis In Cows and Its Effect on Fertility in and around Gondar
Abebe Mequanent 1 and Nibret Moges 2
1 University of Gondar College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Gondar, Ethiopia, P.o. Box: 196
2University of Gondar, college of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, department of Gynacology and Obestetrics.

Summary: A normal uterine environment is required for survival and transport of sperm cells and for maintainance of pregnancy. Subclinical endometritis is an inflammation of the uterus that results in significant reduction in fertility. Fertility is a successful reproduction, infertility is temporary loss of fertility,where as sterility is a permanent loss of fertility. Subclinical endometritis is the presence of inflammatory cells (PMNs) and inflammation within the uterine lumen, but without clinical signs. Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) are the first and most significant cell type recruited during uterine inflammation. Subclinical endometritis is diagnosed by endometrial cytology using uterine lavage. It is treated by removal of necrotic material, administrations of antimicrobials and the inductions of oesterus. Retained fetal membrane, bacterial loading, management factor and nutrition are predisposing factor for subclinical endometritis. The bacteria and fungi are the most common cause of subclinical endometritis. Subclinical endometritis is high in cows having poor calving hygiene, poor body condition. Subclinical endometritis is economically important disease which reduces profitability of dairy enterprise resulting in losses due to an extended calving interval, conception interval, increased culling rates, reduced milk yield and the cost of treatment. It is prevented by hygiene and good management system.
[Abebe. M. and Nibret. M. Review on Subclinical Endometritis In Cows and Its Effect on Fertility in and around Gondar. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(2): 42-48]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030217.06.
Key words: Fertility, Polymorphonuclear cells, Subclinical endometritis 

7. Hepatotoxicity of Lamivudine on the Liver
Oforibika, Adieboye George and Ezekiel, Tamunodiepriye
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Polytechnic Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Rivers State

Abstract: Hepatotoxic effects of antiretroviral drugs Lamivudine on Wister Albino rats were investigated using histopathological studies of the liver. A total of 63 Albino rats of weight range (124 – 197) were divided into five (5) groups (n =5) labeled A, B, C, D, and E. group A served as the control group while groups B, C, D, and E were the experimental groups which are orally treated with 4 different doses (0.7mg/KgBw, 1.4 mg/KgBw, 2.1 mg/KgBw, 2.8 mg/KgBw) respectively four weeks. Animals were sacrificed weekly and the liver was collected for histological examination for 4 weeks. The research found out that the different concentrations of Lamivudine produce significant differences in the histoarchitecture and morphology of the liver cells of the albino rats in the treatment group when compared to the control group. The result of these was necrosis of the liver in the 4th week of 2.8mg/KgBw and 2.1mg/KgBw. Degeneration and inflammation of the hepatocytes increased simultaneously with drug dosage and timing.
[Oforibika, A.G. and Ezekiel, T. Hepatotoxicity of Lamivudine on the Liver. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(2):49-52]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online).  doi:10.7537/marsbnj030217.07.
Keywords: Lamivudine, HAART drug, liver, antiretroviral drug. 

8. Invaginating Oversewing Of The Staple Line Versus Non-Oversewing During Laparoscopic Sleeve
Gastrectomy For Treatment Of Obesity
Radwan A1, Shehata A2, Hamdy E3, Hablas W4, Al-Zayat T5.
1Master in surgery - Al-Azhar university
2Professor of surgery – Al-Azhar university
3Professor of surgery – Al-Azhar university
4Professor & head of clinical pathology department – Al-Azhar university 5Professor & head of radiology department – Al-Azhar university

Abstract: Introduction: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become a very frequent procedure in bariatric surgery. It has erroneously been considered simple and easy which led to its adoption by a large number of surgeons. Staple line leaks, bleeding, and strictures are the commonly reported complications following LSG. Aim: compare the outcome of invaginating oversewing of the staple line versus non-oversewing during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as regards the incidence of postoperative leakage, stricture, and the total outcome in both techniques. Material & methods: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 40 patients who underwent LSG for obesity at Al- Hussien university hospital between May 2015 and April 2017. Patients were assigned to one of two groups: the invaginating oversewing group or the non-oversewing group. The primary outcome was reoperation for hemodynamic instability caused by staple-line bleeding or leak during the early postoperative stay. The secondary outcomes were operative duration, length of hospital stay, postoperative stenosis, and the total outcome of both operations. Results: we had two cases of leak in the non-reinforcment group one undergoing surgery and the other followed up conservatively with no major complications in the oversewing group Conclusion: invaginating oversewing of the staple line during sleeve gastrectomy decreases the post operative leak and bleeding rates. [Radwan A, Shehata A, Hamdy E, Hablas W, Al-Zayat T. Invaginating Oversewing Of The Staple Line Versus Non-Oversewing During Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy For Treatment Of Obesity. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(2): 53-55]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030217.08.
Keywords: Sleeve gastrectomy, leak, oversewing

9. Prevalence And Public Health Significance Of Cysticercus Bovis In Cattle Slaughtered At Gondar Elfora

Hailehizeb Cheru1, and Tesfahiwot Zerihun2
1 Lecturer at burie poly technic college department of animal health 75, Burie, Ethiopia 2 2Lecture at Haramaya University, college of veterinary medicine Department of Pathology and parasitology, P.o. box. 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia,

Abstract: Bovine cysticercosis is an infection of cattle caused by the larval stage, Cysticercus bovis, of the human intestinal cestode, Taenia saginata. It is an infection of public health significance as eating of raw or undercooked beef results taeniasis in human population and an important cause of economic loss mainly due to condemnation, refrigeration and downgrading of infected carcasses. A cross sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to march 2015 at Gondar ELFORA abattoir with the main objective of determining the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in animals, taenaisis in human and estimation of the worth of taeniacidal drugs in Gondar city. The abattoir survey was carried out by routine inspection of carcasses and viability test methods. Post mortem examination was taken in 400 slaughtered cattle from randomly selected animals of which 22 (5.5%) were infected with cysticercus bovis. Of the total of 44 Cysticercus bovis collected during the inspection, (31.8%) were found to be alive while others (68.2%) were degenerative cysts. The tongue, heart, masseter muscles and triceps muscles, were the main predilection sites of the cysts. Anatomical distribution of the cyst showed that highest proportions of C. bovis cyst were observed in heart (3.5%) followed by tongue (2.75%), masseter muscle (2.5%), and triceps (2.25%). The prevalence not varied significantly between (P<0.05), between, age groups, origin, body condition and breed of the animals. The proportion of viable cysts in the inspection sites was triceps muscles (44.4%), heart (35.7%), masseter (31.8%), and tongue (18%). Of the total of 130 interviewed respondents, 43(33.07%) had contracted T.saginata infection at least once in their life time. Human taeniasis prevalence showed significant difference (P- value<0.05) with habit of raw meat consumption, and level of education. Accordingly raw meat consumers (OR=500, 95% CI [0.001-0.031], and those who had law level of schoolings and illiterates 95% CI [2.02-90.3] had higher odds for acquiring taeniasis than cooked meat consumers and other societies respectively. An inventory of taenaicidal drugs from different privet and public pharmacies indicated that drugs worth of 196,558 Ethiopian birr was sold in the past 2013/14. Results obtained in this study confirm that cysticercosis has economic and zoonotic importance, so that routine meat inspection and keeping environmental sanitation should be implemented. [Hailehizeb Cheru, and Tesfahiwot Zerihun. Prevalence And Public Health Significance Of Cysticercus Bovis In Cattle Slaughtered At Gondar Elfora Abattior. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(2): 56-63]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030217.09.
Key words; Cattle, zoonosis, cysticercosiss  

10. Review On Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (Mers-Cov)
Beyenech Gebeyehu 2, Wale Firew 1
1 Department of Animal Health, Instructor at Burie Poly Technique College, Burie, 75, Ethiopia 2 Lecturer at Mekelle Univeristy, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Mekelle, 2084, Ethiopia

Abstract: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is positive-sense, single-stranded RNA novel species of the genus Betacoronavirus; as it was first reported in 2012 after genome sequencing of a virus isolated from sputum samples from patients who fell ill in a 2012 outbreak of a new flu. In humans, the virus has a strong tropism for non-ciliated bronchial epithelial cells, and it has been shown to effectively evade the innate immune responses and antagonize interferon (IFN) production in these cells. The median incubation period for secondary cases associated with limited human-to-human transmission is approximately 5 days (range 2-13 days). In MERS-CoV patients, the median time from illness onset to hospitalization is approximately 4 days. The virus is transmissible from animals to humans, humans to humans and also from humans to animals. Common signs and symptoms include fever (100°F or higher), chills/rigors, headache, non-productive cough, dyspnoea, and myalgia. Peoples at high risk include recent travelers from the Arabian Peninsula; those in close contacts of an ill traveler from the Arabian Peninsula; those having chance of close contacts of a confirmed case of MERS; healthcare personnel not using recommended infection-control precautions, and people with exposure to camels. While the mechanism of spread of MERS-CoV is currently not known, based on experience with prior coronaviruses, such as SARS, the WHO currently recommends that all individuals coming into contact with MERS suspects should wear a medical mask, and laboratory technicians should put on other additional safety personal protective equipment, including gloves and protective gowns.
[Beyenech G., Wale F. Review On Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (Mers-Cov). Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(2): 64-73]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030217.10.
Keywords: Arabian Peninsula, MERS-CoV, personal protective equipment, SARS 

​11. Subcutaneous Tissue Reapproximation Alone or in Combination with Drain in Obese Women Undergoing
Cesarean Section Through Pfannenstiel Incision

Mohamed A.ABOUZAID (M.B., B.CH.), Hossam elden Hussien M.D**, Mohamed Ali Mohamed M.D**
*Obstetrics and gynecology Department Bab elshareaa Hospital, faculty of medicine, AL Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.
** Obstetrics and gynecology Department Bab elshareaa Hospital Cairo, Egypt
Corresponding author: Department of Obstetrics and gynecology Bab elshareaa Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.
Tel: 01283090309 – 01000499973. E-mail: (Mohamed Abouzeid M. ABOUZAID).

Abstract: Background: Cesarean section in these women poses many surgical, anesthetic, and logistical challenges. In view of the increased risk of cesarean delivery in morbidly obese women, A Medline search was conducted to review the recent relevant articles in English literature on cesarean section in morbidly obese women. The types of incisions and techniques used during cesarean delivery, intra-operative and postpartum complications, anesthetic and logistical issues, maternal morbidity and mortality were reviewed. Morbidly obese women are at increased risk of pregnancy complications and a significantly increased rate of cesarean delivery (3), (4). Aim of the work: Evaluation of the benefits of subcutaneous tissue reapproximation alone or in combination with drain in obese women undergoing cesarean section through pfannenstiel incision. Patients and Methods: This trial was conducted in 200 females in Bab Elshaarea hospital. We will conduct a randomized trial of women undergoing cesarean delivery. Consenting women with body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m2 and 4cm or more thickness of subcutaneous tissue then randomized them to either subcutaneous suture closure alone (n =100) or suture plus drain (n =100). The drain (Nelaton catheter size 10 F (3.3mm)) will be attached just below the wound for 24 hours then will be removed followed by disinfecting the wound using betadine 10% and will be covered by sterile dressing for 7 days. The primary study outcome is a composite wound morbidity rate (defined by any of the following: subcutaneous tissue dehiscence, seroma, hematoma, abscess, or fascial dehiscence). A second wound follow-up assessment will be performed 4–6 weeks later at the time of postpartum evaluation. Results: We explored the efficacy of suture plus drain compared with suture alone subcutaneous closure within several specific population subgroups at high risk for postcesarean wound complications., no significant differences were noted between the suture-alone (n = 30) and suture plus drain (n=33) groups with respect to the composite wound morbidity rate (32.5% versus 32.2%). Individual post cesarean wound complication rates in suture plus drain group versus suture alone group showed composite wound morbidity (14.8% versus 19.7%), subcutaneous dehiscence (12.5% versus 17.7%,), seroma (4.3% versus 7.3%), hematoma (2.3% versus 4.2%), abscess (1.1% versus 3.1%), fascial dehiscence (3.2% versus 5.2%), and hospital readmission for wound complications (5.4% versus 8.4%) respectively. Conclusion:. The additional use of a subcutaneous drain along with a standard subcutaneous suture Reapproximation technique is effective for the prevention of wound complications in obese women undergoing cesarean delivery.
[Mohamed A. ABOUZAID (M. B., B. CH.), Hossam elden Hussien M. D, Mohamed Ali Mohamed M. D. Subcutaneous Tissue Reapproximation Alone or in Combination with Drain in Obese Women Undergoing Cesarean Section Through Pfannenstiel incision. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(2): 74-79]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 11. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030217.11.
Keywords: Subcutaneous; Tissue; Reapproximation; Combination; Drain; Women; Cesarean; Section; Pfannenstiel incision

12. Hepatotoxicity Of Nevirapine On The Liver
1Oforibika, G.A. and 2Uwakwe, A.A.
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Polytechnic Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Rivers State
2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, 500004 Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 

Abstract: The study was conducted to investigate the histopathological effect of the highly active antiretroviral drug nevirapine administration on liver histology. A total of 63 albino rats of weight range (124-197g) were divided into 5 groups (n = 5) labeled A, B, C, D, and E. Group A served as control treated with only distilled water, while groups B, C, D, E were orally treated with different doses (0.7mg/kgBw, 1.4mg/kgBw, 2.1mg/kgBw and 2.8mg/kgBw) respectively for four weeks. Animals were sacrificed weekly and histological examination of the liver for four 4 weeks was carried out. Results obtained revealed that the administration of the four different drug concentrations of Nevirapine on the ra produces significant difference on the histoarchitecture and morphology of the liver cell when compared to the control group. As the drug dosage and timing increases degeneration and inflammation of the hepatocytes increases causing necrosis of the liver in the 4th weeks of 2.1mg/kgBw and 2.8mg/kgBw administration of the drug. From the study it can be concluded that Nevirapine administration has obvious gross deterious effect on liver morphology.
[ Oforibika, G.A. and Uwakwe, A.A. Hepatotoxicity Of Nevirapine On The Liver. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(2): 80-84]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 12. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030217.12.
Keywords: HAART Drugs, Nevirapine, Liver Histopathology

13. Role of Multi - Detector CT in The Assessment of Renal Masses
Magdy Mohamed Mansour 1, Mokhtar Ragab Ramadan 1, Mohamed Basioney Ahmed Basioney 2.
1.Department of Radiodiagnosis, Faculty of Medicine. Al-Azhar University, Egypt.
2.Department of Radiodiagnosis, Damanhour Oncology Center, Egypt.

Abstract: This study was performed for evaluation and assessment of solid renal masses by multi detector CT scan. Thirty patients with different solid renal masses were examined by multiphasic CT studies of both kidneys in cortico-medullary, nephrographic and excretory phases. Calculation of attenuation values of all masses throughout the different phases was done. The advent of multi detector CT scan has enabled us to delineate the mass, detect and map the extent of venous spread, lymph nodal enlargement and diagnose local or distant spread. Accordingly, differentiation between benign and malignant masses and accurate staging of malignant ones was obtained. In our multiphasic study, the radiation dose was relatively high as we had to collect three series of images by three exposures in addition to the preliminary non contrast study. However, our study used a non invasive procedure, replaces conventional angiography, CT and IVP, necessitates single dose of IV contrast injection and is performed in short time. Since accurate staging at the time of diagnosis is essential to determine prognosis and formulate a therapeutic plan, we believe that multi detector CT is the single most effective imaging modality for the diagnosis, characterization and staging of solid renal masses in pre operative assessment.
[Magdy Mohamed Mansour, Mokhtar Ragab Ramadan, Mohamed Basioney Ahmed Basioney. Role of Multi - Detector CT in The Assessment of Renal Masses. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(2): 85-91]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 13. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030217.13.
Keywords: RCC, solid renal masses, multiphasic CT study.

14. Determination and Characterization of Caffeine in Tea, Coffee and Soft Drinks by Derivative Spectrophotometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography
1Akinbile Babatunde, 2Temilola Oluseyi, 2Olayinka Kehinde 1Ofudje Andrew

1Department Of Chemical Sciences, College of Natural And Applied sciences, McPherson University, P.M.B 2094, Seriki Sotayo, Ajebo, Ogun state.
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of sciences, University Of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos state.

Abstract: Caffeine is a stimulant drug which is commonly found in several beverages like tea, coffee, cocoa and colanuts. Depending on the dose, it can be a mild central nervous system stimulant. In this paper, the quantification of the caffeine content of twelve beverage samples were reported using UV/ Vis spectrophotometry and the results were compared with the reversed phase HPLC method. Solubilization of pure caffeine was done in three solvents namely: dichloromethane (DCM), ethylacetate and water. The spectra were derivatised to obtain the first and second order derivatives. The results showed that dichloromethane had the highest resolution at λmax of 274nm compared to water (272nm) and ethylacetate (273nm). Isolation of caffeine from samples was carried out by liquid-liquid extraction using dichloromethane as an extracting solvent. The caffeine extracts were analyzed using PG T80 UV/Visible spectrophotometer series. The percentage of caffeine in the twelve samples analyzed were as follows: Napacafe coffee (8.90%) > Nescafe coffee (7.80%) > Lipton Yellow tea (7.64) > Top tea (6.76%) > Cola acuminata (3.90%) > Extra joss energy powder (3.26%) > Cola nitida (2.60%) > Cocoa beans (0.88%) > Minicoffee kopiko sweet (0.49%) in the solid beverage samples and it was found that caffeine content of planent energy drink (9.28%) > Pepsi cola (7.55%) > Coca-Cola (7.20%) in the liquid samples. The results also indicated that caffeine can be extracted more at the boiling temperature (1000C) (as found in Top tea, Nescafe coffe and Napacafe coffee with values: 11.72%, 13.25% and 14.03%) than at 300C with 6.76%, 7.80% and 8.90% respectively). Generally, higher concentrations of caffeine were obtained with the UV/Vis spectrophotometric method (i.e 6.76, 3.26 and 3.90µg/g) compared to HPLC method (2.76, 1.00 and 1.49µg/g). This shows that caffeine has high affinity for DCM and thus a better solubilization solvent than ordinary water mixed with acetonitrile.
[ Akinbile Babatunde, Temilola Oluseyi, Olayinka Kehinde Ofudje Andrew. Determination and Characterization of Caffeine in Tea, Coffee and Soft Drinks by Derivative Spectrophotometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(2): 92-101]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 14. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030217.14.
Keywords: Caffeine, tea, coffee, UV/ Vis spectrophotometry, Derivative spectrophotometry High performance liquid chromatography

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