BIOMEDICINE & NURSING
Biomedicine and Nursing
Volume 3 - Issue 3 (Cumulated No. 10), September 25, 2017. (COVER)
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1. Outbreak Investigation and Sero-Type Identification of FMD in Selected Zones of Amhara Region
Zeru Assefa1, Bereket Molla2, Yibeltal Muhie2, Awol Mohammed1
1 College of Veterinary Medicine, Jigjiga University, P.O. Box. 1020, Jigjiga, Ethiopia
2 Lecturer at Jigjiga University College of Veterinary Medicine, Jigjiga University, P.O. Box. 1020. Jigjiga, Ethiopia
Abstract: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-footed animals and it is one of the most economically important diseases of livestock. A cross sectional study was conducted on investigation of FMD outbreak from November 2011 to April 2012 in selected districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia. A total of 430 animals were clinically and serologically examined for presence of specific lesions and nonstructural protein for foot and mouth diseases respectively. Of which, 122 (28.75%) manifested clinical signs and lesions suggestive of FMD, and 47 (10.93%) were sero-positive. From a total of 3419 animals observed and recorded on a designed format in five districts, 963 (28.16%) were infected, and 39 (1.6%) died during outbreaks of FMD. Epidemiological investigations revealed that the morbidity rate of the disease was 1.6% in Legambo districts, whereas the mortality rate was <2% in all districts. Furthermore, the mortality and case fatality rates were relatively higher, 1.6% and 6.06% in calves than the other age groups, respectively. From a total of 16 bovine epithelial tissue-cultured samples, all showed cytopatic effect for foot and mouth diseases virus, in which 16 samples had serotype O and high incidence of FMD outbreak in different districts of Amhara region. Generally the result of the present study showed that FMD is an important cattle disease in the study area. Thus, an appropriate control strategy has to be designed and applied which could involve regulation of transboundary animal movement and vaccination using the circulating virus strain.
[Zeru Assefa, Bereket Molla, Yibeltal Muhie, Awol Mohammed. Outbreak Investigation and Sero-Type Identification of FMD in Selected Zones of Amhara Region. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3):1-13]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.01.
Keywords: case fatality rate, cytopathic effect, foot and mouth diseases, morbidity rate, Mortality rate, outbreak, Serotype
2. Review on Bovine Tuberculosis in Ethiopia
Wale Firew, Kalkidan Alemayehu
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Mekelle University, Mekelle, P.O. Box 2084, Ethiopia
Abstract: Bovine Tuberculosis is a contagious, bacterial disease of both animals and humans. It is a chronic infectious disease caused by M. bovis, characterized by progressive development of granulomas in tissues and organs. This disease is a significant zoonosis that spread to humans, typically by the inhalation of aerosols or the ingestion of un-pasteurized milk. BTB has been widely distributed throughout the world and it has been a cause for great economic loss in animal production. In developed countries, eradication programs have reduced or eliminated tuberculosis in cattle, and human disease is now rare; however Bovine tuberculosis is still common in less developed countries, and severe economic losses can occur from livestock deaths and trade restrictions. In developing countries, TB is the most frequent opportunistic disease associated with HIV infection. Ethiopia is one of the African countries where tuberculosis is wide spread in both humans and cattle mainly due to culture of drinking un-pasteurized raw milk.
[Kalkidan A., Wale F. Review on Bovine Tuberculosis in Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3): 14-21]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.02.
Keywords: Bovine Tuberculosis; M. bovis; zoonosis; bovine; milk; pasteurization
3. Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Its Vector Density in Dale Wabera District, Kellem Wollega Zone, Oromia Regional State, Western Ethiopia
Desta Mengesha1, Girma Kebede1, Tilahun Zenebe2, Zelalem Abera1, Tadele Kabeta1
1Wollega University, School of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia
2National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center, P.O. Box 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia
Abstract: Trypanosomosis is a widely spread protozoan disease in domestic livestock that causes a significant negative impact on economic growth in many parts of the world particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Bovine trypanosomosis is one of the most prevalent and important disease in Ethiopia limiting livestock productivity and agricultural development. Therefore, a cross sectional study was conducted in Dale Wabera district of Oromia Regional State from November 2015 to June 2016 to determine the prevalence of trypanosomosis and its vector density. Blood sample was collected in capillary tubes from 620 randomly selected animals through puncturing their ear vein by lancet. Buffy coat technique was used to determine prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in the study area. From a total 620 examined blood sample, 44(7.1%) animals were found positive. The prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in female was 11 (4.6%) and in male 33 (8.6%) with a statistical significant difference of (P=0.020, X2=3.670, CI= 0.9736—3.698), similarly, the prevalence in young animals were 7 (3.95%), middle 29 (9.63%), and adult 8 (5.65%) without a statistical significant difference (P=0.107, X2 =6.10, CI= 0.769—1.812). The prevalence of the disease that was recorded in poor 29(61.39%), medium 10(3.61%) and good 5(6.67%) body condition score with statically significant variation (P=0.005, X2 =10.766, CI = 0.732326—0.90477). However, the mean PCV value recorded between parasitaemic and aparasitemic animals were 19.51 and 27.78 respectively, with highly statically significant difference (P=0.000, X2 =30.718, CI=0.316—0.2533). In this study the most frequently identified trypanosome species were T. congolense 32 (72.72%) followed by T. vivax 8 (18.18%) and mixed infection (T. vivax and T. congolense) 4 (9.09%). The entomological surveys were conducted using 60 traps, 12, 12, 36 ENGU, Biconical and Monopryamidal traps respectively on each PAs. AS a result, Glossina pallidipes, G. m. submorsitans, G. tachynoides and G. fuscipes fuscipes were the tsetse fly species identified in the study area along with other biting flies like Stomoxys and Tabanus. The mean apparent density of tsetse fly was higher (19.7) than biting fly (0.6) in the study area. In conclusion, the current study revealed that the livestock in study area was found still with the challenge of this disease. Therefore, emphasis should be given for the control and prevention of trypanosomosis infection and its vectors.
[Desta Mengesha, Girma Kebede, Tilahun Zenebe, Zelalem Abera, Tadele Kabeta. Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis and Its Vector Density in Dale Wabera District, Kellem Wollega Zone, Oromia Regional State, Western Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3): 22-31]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.03.
Keywords: Prevalence, Trypanosomosis, Buffy coat technique, Vectors, fly per trap per day, Bovine, Dale Wabera district, Ethiopia.
4. Review On Foot And Mouth Disease
Ahmed Umer1, 2, 3, Awol Mohammed1, 2, 3, Zeru Assefa1, 2, 3
1 School of veterinary medicine, Wello University, P.O. Box. 1145, wello, Ethiopia
2 Lecturer at Wello University school of Veterinary Medicine, Wello University, P.O. Box. 1145. Wello, Ethiopia
3 Bahir Dar University, college of Agriculture and environmental science, Bahir Dar University, P.O. Box. 5501. Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Abstract: Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious diseases of mammals and has a great potential for causing severe economic loss in susceptible cloven hoofed animals. It causes production losses, high mortality in young animals, and is a major constraint to international trade in live animals and their products. There are seven serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV), namely, O, A, C, SAT 1, SAT 2, SAT 3 and Asia 1. Within this serotypes there are also a number of subtypes of the virus. Infection with one serotype does not confer immunity against another. Even if the frequency of outbreaks and the distribution of serotypes are not uniform, the disease has a global distribution. Serotype O, A and C viruses have had the widest distribution and have been responsible for many outbreaks in Europe, America, Asia and Africa. FMDV can be spread either by direct or indirect contact. Further spread between cattle is more likely to be by airborne means. Clinical signs can vary from mild to severe, and fatalities may occur, especially in young animals. Typical cases of FMD are characterized by a vesicular condition of the feet, buccal mucosa and, in females, the mammary glands. FMD cannot be differentiated clinically from other vesicular diseases, such as swine vesicular disease, vesicular stomatitis and vesicular exanthema. Laboratory diagnosis of any suspected FMD case is therefore important. The control of FMD depends on prevention of the introduction of virus, prevention of infection of stock and the prevention of spread of the virus from infected animals. Although inactivated FMD vaccines have been available for decades, there is little or no cross-protection across serotypes and subtypes, requiring vaccines that are matched to circulating field strains. Therefore there should be production of safe and inexpensive vaccine that is easy to deliver and also capable of inducing lifelong immunity against multiple serotypes and subtypes.
[Umer A, Mohammed A, Assefa Z. Review On Foot And Mouth Disease. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3): 32-41]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.04.
Keywords: Foot and Mouth Disease, outbreak, Serotype, Vaccination
5. Haematological Effects of Methanolic Root and Leaf Extracts of Thaumatococcus danielli in Wistar Rat
Udeme Jude Ogoloma1, Mathew Wegu2 and Bennie N. Abbey 3
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Polytechnic Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Rivers State
2 & 3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, 500004 Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Abstract: The haematopoietic system which is an important index of physiological and pathological status of man and animals is one of the prime targets for toxic compounds due to the fact that all foreign compounds are distributed in the body via the blood stream. This study was undertaken to determine the phytochemical composition of dried leaves and roots of Thaumatococcus danielli and their effect on some haematological parameters in Wistar rats. Phytochemical analysis using GC-FID revealed that kaempferol was higher in leaf (18.75ug/g) than root (9.55ug/g). Tannin was higher in root (10.39ug/g) than leaf (8.93ug/g), while phenol was higher in leaf (6.66ug/g) than root (3.96ug/g). Saponin, rutin, phytate and catechin contents were within same range in both leaf and root. A total of 226 albino rats of weight between 180 to 220g were used for toxicity studies for 4 weeks. The LD50 for leaf and root was 330mg/kg body weight (bw) and 250mg/kgbw respectively, upon intraperitoneal administration. Haematological result showed some alteration in red blood cells, white blood cells and its differentials but no significant effect (P<0.05) on haemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets concentrations. Phytochemical analyses showed significant concentration of potential phytochemicals which are of health benefit to human beings. But, sub-acute administration of leaf and root extracts of Thaumatococcus danielli caused noticeable alterations in haematological parameters. Thus, caution should be applied when using this plant therapeutically at medium and high dose concentrations. It is recommended that chronic toxicity studies for duration of at least 60 days be designed to explicitly define some observed alterations in haematological parameters.
[Ogoloma, U.J., Wegu, M. and B. N. Abbey. Haematological Effects of Methanolic Root and Leaf Extracts of Thaumatococcus danielli in Wistar Rat. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3): 42-55]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.05.
Keywords: haematopoietic, Thaumatococcus danielli, haemoglobin, Wistar rats, phytochemical
6. Prevalence and correlates of anxiety among patients with dental disease on follow up at St. Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Kemal Jemal, MSc, * Worku Bedada, PhD
1Department of Nurse, College of Health Science, Salale University, Fiche, Oromiya, Ethiopia
*Corresponding author: Kemal Jemal
P.O. Box 245, Tel.:+251- 9-13-30-87-02, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Background: anxiety one of the most widespread mental disorders that is also common among people with dental diseases. However, association between anxiety and dental diseases is poorly studied in Ethiopia. This study was thus initiated to determine the prevalence of anxiety and associated factors in people with dental disease at St. Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College (SPHMMC). Methods: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at SPHMMC from May 1-31, 2016. Data were collected using a pretested, semi-structured, standardized and culturally validated version of Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS-A). Systematic sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors. Odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of associations. Results: A total of 423 participants were studied, with response rate of 100%. The prevalence of anxiety was found to be 30.3%. In the multivariable analysis, being female [AOR=1.93, 95% CI (1.02, 3.66)], age groups of 30-44 [AOR= 2.77, 95% CI (1.38, 5.58)], tooth loss [AOR=2.18, 95% CI (1.28, 3.70)], irregular tooth brushing [AOR=2.12, 95% CI (1.17, 3.84)] and having another chronic disease [AOR=2.54, 95% CI (1.13, 5.74)] were significantly associated with anxiety among people with dental disease. Conclusions: The prevalence of anxiety was high among people with dental disease. Sex, age, tooth loss, tooth brushing practice and co-morbid are risk factors. It is therefore important to consider these factors for successful management of anxiety in people with dental diseases.
[Kemal Jemal, Worku Bedada. Prevalence and correlates of anxiety among patients with dental disease on follow up at St. Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3): 56-62]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.06.
Key words: Prevalence, Anxiety, People with Dental Disease, Risk factors, Ethiopia
7. Prevalence of Clinical Case Based Bovine Trypanosomosis in and around Bambasi Town of the Benishangul Gumuz Region, Western Ethiopia.
1Abebe Bulcha, 2*Haile worku, 2* Birhanu Eticha and 2*Dejen Tsehayeneh
1Bambesi Woreda agriculture Office, Bambasi, Ethiopia; E- mail email@example.com
2*Livestock and Fisheries resource development Agency of the Benishangul Gumuz Region, Assosa, Ethiopia;
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Corresponding authors: Dr. Haile Worku and Dr. Birhanu Eticha.
Abstract: This study was conducted from November 2009 to March 2010 in and around Bambasi town to assess the prevalence of clinical case based bovine trypanosomosis. A total of 385 cattle were examined and an overall prevalence of 45.1% was recorded. The diagnostic techniques used to detect the parasites include PCV (Packed cell value), Hematocrit centrifugation technique (Buffy coat examination) and thin blood smear. The predominant species involved in the infection was Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosom vivax and mixed infection with Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax accounting for 121(31.4%), 28(6.3%) and 24(6.2%) respectively. Prevalence of trpanosomosis was higher in female than male animals and the association was found statistical significant (P<0.001); similarly prevalence of trypanosomosis was higher in animals aged > 6 years than animals aged < 2 years and 2-6 years and there was statistically significant difference (P<0.001) among the age groups. The comparison of PCV values of parasiteamia and aparaisiteamic animals in the study area also indicated statistically significant difference (P<0.001) and 14% and 15% were minimal PCV values of infected cattle while 16% and 17% were examined as the minimal PCV value of non-infected animals. In conclusion the current finding revealed that trypanosomosis is one of the major economically important diseases of livestock in the study district which affects production, productivity and reproduction capacity of cattle implying the need for strategic approach to mitigate the impact of the disease.
[Abebe B, Haile W, Birhanu E and Dejen T. Prevalence of Clinical Case Based Bovine Trypanosomosis in and around Bambasi Town of the Benishangul Gumuz Region, Western Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3): 63-68]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.07.
Keywords: Bovine, Clinical case, Prevalence, Trypanosomosis
8. Bacteriological quality assesement of raw cow’s milk in and around Asossa, Ethiopia
Tolessa Ebissa and *Asmamaw Aki
Regional Veterinary Diagnostic, Sureveillance, Monitoring and Study Laboratory, P.O. Box: 326, Asossa, Ethiopia, email address: firstname.lastname@example.org; Celephone: +251 92223235
Abstract: A cross- sectional study was conducted in Asossa District of Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Western Ethiopia from November 2015 to March 2016 to estimate the bacteriological quality of raw cow milk, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, along with questionnaire survey to assess hygienic practices during milking, milk storage and transportation. The micro organisms were isolated from contaminated milk and their antimicrobial susceptibility was tested. The result revealed a high bacterial load in the raw cow milk, and an increased resistance of bacterial isolate to locally available anti bacterial agents. These results provide valuable information for the improvement of local dairy production and suggest the necessity of more effective control on the use of antibiotics.
[Tolessa Ebissa and Asmamaw Aki . Bacteriological quality assesement of raw cow’s milk in and around Asossa, Ethiopia.Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3): 69-80]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.08.
Keywords: Asossa, cows, isolation, bacterial load, milk
9. The Role of Circadian Timing System on Drug Pharmacokinetics and Detoxification: A Short Review for Clinicians and Pharmacy Practitioners
I.L. Yusuf 1, H. Yusuf 2, M.B. Tijjani 1, I.O Akefe 3, Z. Muhammad 4
1. Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
2. Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
3. Department of Veterinary Physiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
4. Department of Human Physiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria., Nigeria.
Abstract: It has been known for a long time that drug efficiency and toxicity depend on the time of administration; however the mechanisms involved have only started to emerge recently. There is clear evidence that the molecular circadian clock is involved in this process. The molecular clock acts either directly or through the rhythmic expression of clock-controlled transcription factors that regulate the expression of detoxification enzymes or indirect pathways. The molecular clock is not only involved in the drug metabolizing process, but also in the elimination of the metabolized compounds through the hepathobiliary system and the kidney. The circadian clock-coordinated drug detoxification has a strong impact in the pharmacokinetics of drugs and with the known chronodynamic mechanisms influencing drug efficiency, constitutes the bases of Chronopharmacology. Feeding schedules, sex and phenotype alongside with time of the day, must be taken into consideration while applying pharmacotherapy, so as to increase efficiency and decrease side effects. On the other hand, new special drug delivery systems can be used to synchronize drug concentrations according to circadian rhythms. “Chronopharmaceuticals” can identify the proper dosing time and this amelioration will lead to improved progress and diffusion of pharmacotherapy. Chronopharmaceuticals coupled with nanotechnology could be the future of drug delivery systems, and lead to safer and more efficient disease therapy in the future.
[I.L. Yusuf, H. Yusuf, M.B. Tijjani, I.O Akefe, Z. Muhammad. The Role of Circadian Timing System on Drug Pharmacokinetics and Detoxification: A Short Review for Clinicians and Pharmacy Practitioners. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3): 81-87]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.09.
Keywords: Pharmacokenetics; Circadian rhythm; Chronopharmacology; Chronopharmacokinetics
10. Phytochemical Properties of Three Selected Plant Species in Yola, Nigeria
*Khobe, D., **Kwaga, B. T., and **Nache, R. D.
* Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria.
** Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management. Modibbo Adama Univ. of Tech., Yola, Nigeria.
Mobile Phone: +23480137459305; E-mail: email@example.com
Abstract: A research was conducted to examine the phytochemical properties of Three (3) selected plant species in Yola, Nigeria. The leaves, stem-bark and roots of Guiera senegalensis, Terminalia glaucescens and Ziziphus maiuritania were collected from plant community within the University. The specimens were identified at the Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola. Each sample was dried at room temperature until a constant weight was obtained before grinding into fine powder using mortal and pestle. The samples were qualitative and quantitatively analysed and the data obtained were statistically analysed using SPSS package. Results revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, flavinoids and phenols were present in all the species analysed. One-way analysis of variance was used to test if there are significant differences (P=0.5). The results implied that the species had potentials in pharmaceutical, agrochemical and allied industries.
[Khobe, D., Kwaga, B. T., and Nache, R. D.. Phytochemical Properties of Three Selected Plant Species in Yola, Nigeria.Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3): 88-94]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org.10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.10.
Keywords: Phytochemical properties, roots, leaves, stem-bark
11. Role of laparoscopy in the management of abdominal trauma Running Head: laparoscopic management of abdominal trauma
Ashraf Abd Elhady, MD*, Ahmed Gaber, MD, Mohamed Abd El-khalek, M.B.BCH
* General surgery department, Faculty of medicine, Menoufia University
Tel: 01061902337； E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Objective The aim of the work is to study the feasibility, the advantages and the disadvantages of laparoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of abdominal trauma. Background: The role of laparoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of abdominal trauma has increased markedly in the last few years. since the use of laparoscopy in diagnosis and management of abdominal trauma The number of negative and/ or nontherapeutic laparotomies performed has decreased. Patients and methods: Thirty patients with abdominal trauma 11 blunt traumas (BT), 19 penetrating trauma (PT) were treated by the Trauma Team at the Emergency Units of Menofyia University and Maadi Military Hospital from January 2014 to May 2016 using laparoscopy for diagnosis. All patients underwent a physical examination, Ultrasound, and computed tomography (abdomen and pelvis). Laparoscopy was used in the management of these patients through three trocars: one for 30° scope and two working trocars. Results: In our series, we avoided laparotomy in 66.6% (20/30) of cases. Negative and non-therapeutic laparoscopies four patients and therapeutic laparoscopy was performed in ten patients; six patients hand assisted splenectomy, three patients need repair of liver tears, three patients need diaphragmatic tear repair, six patients need primary repair for bowel and two patients need stomach repair. Conclusion: Laparoscopy can be performed in management of stable patients with abdominal trauma safely and effectively.
[Ashraf Abd Elhady, Ahmed Gaber, Mohamed Abd El-khalek. Role of laparoscopy in the management of abdominal trauma Running Head: laparoscopic management of abdominal trauma. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3): 95-100].ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.11.
Keywords: Abdominal trauma, laparoscopy, penetrating injury, blunt injury.
12. Reveiew On Bovine Tick Infestation In Ethiopia Prospective
Abdeta Ayana, Mengestie Abebaw
1 Faculity of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health science, University of Gondar, P.o.box. 196, Gondar, Ethiopia
Abstract: Ticks are arachnids in the sub class acari which are relatively large and long lived parasite. They are blood feeding external parasites. Ticks are classified in to two families, argarisidae or soft ticks and ixodidae or hard ticks which differ considerably by their structure. There are total of 28 species of ticks distributed in Ethiopia. The percentage of of their prevalence was ranges from 16 to 86.1% in different parts of country. There are four major stages in the life cycle of ticks: egg, larva, nymph, and adult. The pathogenic effects are associated with the feeding mechanism of the parasite which is ideal for both penetrating the skin and transmitting micro-organisms. Ticks are causes great economic losses to livestock, and adversely affect livestock hosts in several ways. The effect of ticks on host species can be divided into cutaneous and systemic effects. Irritation, loss of appetite, depression, debilitation, weakness, ulceration, anemia, development of myiasis, annoyance, restlessness, loss of weight, and tick paralysis are clinical signs of tick infestation. Ticks acts as potential vector for haemo-protozoa and helminth parasites. Treatment of hosts with acaricides to kill attached larvae, nymphs, and adults of ixodid ticks and larvae of argasid ticks has been the most widely used control method.
[Abdeta Ayana, Mengestie Abebaw. Reveiew On Bovine Tick Infestation In Ethiopia Prospective. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(3): 101-107]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030317.12.
Key words: Bovine, Ethiopia, Ixodid, Ticks
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