ISSN 2379-8203


Biomedicine and Nursing
Volume 3 - Issue 4 (Cumulated No. 11), December 25, 2017. (COVER)

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1. Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
Akefe IO, 1 Adamu AM, 2 Yusuf IL, 3 Anaso EU, 4 Umar MS. 5 Abraham S2
1. Physiology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
2. Department of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja
3. Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri.
4. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Abuja
5. Department of Theriogenology and Production, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria., 08034986335, 08156353662

Abstract: An endocrine disruptor is an exogenous substance or mixture that alters function (s) of the endocrine system consequently causing adverse health effects in an intact organism, or its progeny populations. Over 800 chemicals used in daily life possess endocrine disrupting properties. These chemicals are involved in many chronic diseases like cardiovascular problems, diabetes, obesity, reproductive abnormalities, thyroid problems, neoplasm and many homeostatic imbalances. From the atmosphere, EDCs in the vapor phase are transferred to soil surface either by physical or chemical processes. In this cycle, human and wildlife are threatened to endocrine disruption via inhalation of EDC from the atmosphere and consumption of EDC deposited in primary producers and bio-accumulated tissues of secondary consumers. EDCs exhibit genomic responses and modify transcriptional signals by inhibiting or synthesizing new proteins. EDCs also mimic endogenous steroid hormones and induce rapid nongenomic response by binding plasma membrane receptors and acting through second messenger-triggered signal cascades resulting in the changes in cellular motility, signaling processes and rapid hormonal synthesis. Strategies to alleviate the devastation that arises from these EDSc include strengthening the knowledge of EDCs, improved testing for EDCs, reducing exposures and thereby vulnerability to disease, identifying endocrine active chemicals, creating enabling environments for scientific advances, innovation and disease prevention and enhanced methods for evaluating evidences of EDCs. 
[Akefe IO,   Adamu AM,   Yusuf IL,  Anaso EU,  Umar MS.   Abraham S. Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(4): 1-12]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030417.01.
Keywords: Pathophysiology; Endocrine; Chemicals; Phthalates; Pesticides; Biphenyl

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3. Phytochemical Properties Of Three Selected Plant Species In Yola Nigeria
*Khobe, D., **Kwaga, B. T., And **Nache, R. D.
* Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria.
** Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management. Modibbo Adama Univ. of Tech., Yola, Nigeria.
*Corresponding Author:; +23480137459305

Abstract: A research was conducted to examine the phytochemical properties of Three (3) selected plant species in Yola, Nigeria. The leaves, stem-bark and roots of Guiera senegalensis, Terminalia glaucescens and Ziziphus maiuritania were collected from plant community within the University. The specimens were identified at the Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola. Each sample was dried at room temperature until a constant weight was obtained before grinding into fine powder using mortal and pestle. The samples were qualitative and quantitatively analysed and the data obtained were statistically analysed using SPSS package. Results revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, flavinoids and phenols were present in all the species analysed. One-way analysis of variance was used to test if there are significant differences (P=0.5). The results implied that the species had potentials in pharmaceutical, agrochemical and allied industries.
[ KHOBE, D.,   KWAGA, B. T., AND   NACHE, R. D. Phytochemical Properties Of Three Selected Plant Species In Yola Nigeria. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(4): 25-31]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030417.03.
Keywords: Phytochemical properties, roots, leaves, stem-bark 

4. Review on gastric ulcer in horses
Habtamu addis 1, Abebe mequnent2, Tsehayneh Cheklie1

1,2university of Gondar College of veterinary medicine and animal science, Department of veterinary clinical, Gondar, Ethiopia p.o. Box:196
1,2university of Gondar College of veterinary medicine and animal science, Department of veterinary clinical, Gondar, Ethiopia p.o. Box:196
Email:; Telephone: +251921281124

Abstract:Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome (EGUS) describes a unique set of conditions that are manifested as erosions and ulcerations in the distal esophagus, non glandular and glandular stomach, and proximal duodenum of horses. There is no established etiology of gastric ulcer in horses although association with risk factors such as stress/disease, treatment (iatrogenic factors), exercise, management and environmental factors, dietary factors and factors associated with withholding of feeds are indicated. The pathogenesis gastric ulcers are uncertain but exposure of squamouse mucosa to the acid is probably involved in the development of ulcers in most horses. Management has an important impact on the treatment of gastric ulcer in horses. Horses with gastric ulcers experience a spontaneous healing when removed from the training and kept at the pasture. Prevention of gastric ulcer disease in athletic horses centers up minimizing factors that promote ulcer development. Many studies have been done in different parts of the world in search of knowledge of equine gastric ulceration syndrome emphasis being given to the risk factors, pathogenesis, and clinical presentation of the case, diagnosis, treatment and control and prevention measures that can be applied in order to alleviate the problem.
[Habtamu addis, Abebe mequnent, Tsehayneh Cheklie. Review on gastric ulcer in horses. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(4):32-39]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030417.04.
Keywords: gastric ulcer, horse, pathogenesis, risk factors, treatment

5. Retrospective Study On Bovine Hydatidosis At Gondar Elfora Abattoir
1Belisty Shumet, 2Hailehizeb Cheru, 3Bewuketu Anteneh and 4Ayehualem Tadesse
1 Lecturer at burie poly technic college department of animal health P.o. Box. 75, Burie, Ethiopia 1Sinior clinical expert at kuy veterinary clinic, kuy, Ethiopia, 2Sinior clinical expert at Lumame veterinary clinic, Lumame, Ethiopia.

Abstract: A study was conducted on bovine hydatidosis from November 2014 to March 2015 with the aim of determining the prevalence and cyst distribution and to estimate financial losses due to hydatid cyst as result of organ condemnation and carcass weight reduction in Gondar Elfora abattoir. Both retrospective and cross sectional studies were carried out by compiling recorded data in the abattoir and active abattoir survey. The present finding revealed that the overall rate of the parasite was 21.61% prevalence of hydatidosis based on the postmortem examination of 620 cattle. The rates in adult and old cattle were 17.62% and 24.5% respectively. The rate of the hydatidosis in adult and old cattle showed significance variation (p<0.05). Similarly the prevalence in poor, medium and good body conditions was also 31.78%, 21.11% and 14.57% with statically variation among the body conditions. But the prevalence in local and cross breed was 22.5% and 15.9% with no statistical variation between the two breeds. Among the lungs, liver, heart, spleen and kidneys examined in each carcass, the cysts were distributed in these organs lungs in different proportions. Out of 262 cysts, 145 (55.34%) were found in lung,74 (28.24%) in livers, heart 16(6.11%), kidney16(6.11%) spleen11(4.2%). These cysts were further characterized as fertile (22.9%), sterile (44.65%) and calcified (32.45%) and from fertile cysts 53.33%were viable and 46.67% were nonviable. Based on this study, the annual economic loss from organs condemnation and carcass weight reduction was estimated about 818764 (ETB). In the retrospective study (2010 to 2014), with combined prevalence of 25.55%and the financial loss within five years (from 2010 to 2014) from organ condemnation and carcass weight loss due to bovine hydatidosis at Gondar Elfora abattoir was estimated to be 9,760,684 ETB. Presence of hydatid cysts in edible organs has great public health significance as consumption of undercooked/raw meat is still in practice in many parts of Ethiopia. It can be stated that hydatidosis is one of the most economically important cattle disease in the area warranting for serious attention. 
[ Belisty Shumet, Hailehizeb Cheru, Bewuketu Anteneh and Ayehualem Tadesse. Retrospective Study On Bovine Hydatidosis At Gondar Elfora Abattoir. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(4): 40-49]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030417.05.
Keywords: Abattoir, Cattle, Economic Significance, Gondar, Hydatidosis, Prevalence

6. Comparative Effects of Anti-Retroviral Drugs on Liver Enzymes
Adieboye George Oforibika1 and Augustine Amadikwa Uwakwe 2
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt Polytechnic Rumuola, P.M.B. 5936, Port Harcourt, Rivers State
2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, 500004 Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the comparative effect of nevirapine (nevran), lamivudine and zidovudine on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities of normal albino rats. A total of 63(sixty-three) albino rats were randomly divided into five groups labelled A, B, C, D and E and kept in a well ventilated room. Their environmental conditions were constant. Group A served as control and these rats were treated with distilled water. Rats in the groups B, C, D and E were treated with four different doses of the drugs (0.7, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8mg/Kgbw) respectively. The drugs were administered once daily for 1,2,3,4 and 5 weeks consecutively, animals were sacrificed twenty four hours after the last treatment. Results obtained in this study revealed that AST levels were highest in Nevran at week 3 of grp B (178.00±1.15 IU/L) when compared to the control (122.6±8.45IU/L). Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed among the 3 drugs at group B of week 1 and there was no significant differences between any at group E of week 5. Lamivudine had the highest activity for ALT at group D of week 3(80.00±1.15IU/L) as compared to the control of (44.67±2.60IU/L). Nevran and zidovudine were significantly different (p<0.05) with the other drugs at group B of week 1 and group E of week 5 respectively. Mean ALP activity was greatest in Lamivudine at group C of week 1 (58.20±0.06IU/L) when compared to the control (46.73±3.54IU/L). When compared to each other there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between any drug at group B of week1 while at group E of week5 Lamivudine was significantly different (p<0.05) with the other two drugs. Treatment of HIV/AIDS with ARVs likely results to liver damage by hepatocellular injury by necrosis of the liver and this is due to prolonged treatment.
[Oforibika, G.A. and Uwakwe, A.A.. Comparative Effects of Anti-Retroviral Drugs on Liver Enzymes. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(4): 50-54]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030417.06.
Keywords: Nevirapine, lamivudine, zidovudine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatise, HIV/AIDS, liver damage, hepatocellular injury

7. Review on Major Gastro Intestinal Tract Parasites in Small Ruminants in Ethiopia
Birara Ayalneh Tamiru. 
College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Department of Paraclinical Studies, University of Gondar, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia
Tel. +251923547361; Email:

Abstract: Gastro intestinal tract parasites are an economically important parasitic disease of sheep and goat caused by trematode, cestode and nematode parasites. It is an important limiting factor for ovine and caprin Production and causes for several economic losses due to morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. The problem of gastro intestinal tract parasites in Ethiopia, especially in small ruminants is much more severe due to very favorable environmental conditions for parasite multiplication, transmission, poor nutrition of host animals, and poor sanitation in facilities where animals are housing and grazing. As a result diseases caused by helminthes remain as one of the major impediments to small ruminant production. Economic losses caused by gastrointestinal parasites are losses through lowered fertility, a reduction in food intake and lower weight gains, lower milk production, treatment costs and mortality in heavily parasitized animals. The objective of this seminar paper is to review the epidemiology, diagnosis pathogenesis, treatment and control options of Gastro intestinal tract parasites. Diagnosis of Gastro intestinal tract parasites are based on clinical sign, grazing history, and seasonal occurrence, examination of feces by laboratory tests and post mortem examination. Treatment of infected animals will largely depend on the correct use of appropriate and registered anthelmintics. Gastro intestinal tract parasites may be controlled by reducing the populations of the intermediate hosts, grazing management and by appropriate anthelmintic treatment. 
[Birara Ayalneh Tamiru.. Review on Major Gastro Intestinal Tract Parasites in Small Ruminants in Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(4): 55-60]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030417.07.
Keywords: Anthelmintic, Cestode, Ethiopia GIT, Nematode, Trematode

8. Mouse models for the motor neuron disease Amyotrophic Laterals Sclerosis (ALS)
Aziza R Alrafiah 
Assistance professor, King Abdul Aziz university, Jeddah, KSA

Abstract: Lou Gehrig’s disease, also known as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is a neurodegenerative disease that affects motor neurons. It causes muscle atrophy and paralysis, and gradually worsens over time, typically lasting for around three to five years before death. People with ALS have a weak grip, problems of breathing and swallowing and difficulty moving and walking. The condition worsens over time, and up to date there is no cure. Familial ALS (FALS) accounts for around 10% of all cases. Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene are known to cause a large proportion of these FALS cases, and some research has indicated that defects in SOD1 may also underlie other forms of sporadic ALS. The main function of SOD1 is to remove superoxide radicals, preventing their accumulation that will cause oxidative damage to the cell. However, the mutant diversity of SOD1 takes on a new, toxic function that finally leads to motor neurons death that control muscle movement. Although there are already numerous SOD1 ALS mouse models in existence, all overexpress the human gene, producing excessive amounts of the mutant protein. However overexpression of the non-mutant SOD1 gene can result in an ALS-like syndrome as well. This increases concerns about whether the neurodegeneration and other effects in these models are actually due to the mutation, or due to gene overexpression. This review compares the various mouse models generated to date and summarizes the research on the pleiotropic role of different proteins present in motor neurons. It is believed that these observations will help identify potential therapeutic targets of this disease.
[Aziza R Alrafiah. Mouse models for the motor neuron disease Amyotrophic Laterals Sclerosis (ALS). Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(4): 61-94]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030417.08.
Keywords: Mouse; model; motor; neuron; disease; Amyotrophic; Laterals; Sclerosis; Aziza R Alrafiah

9. DiGeorge Syndrome Can Be Presented with Hydrops and Asubtle Dysmorphic Features
Dr. Sohier Ahmed1, Dr. Wahid Ali Agab2, Dr. Suad Rashid Al Amer3
1Senior Resident- Department of Paediatrics BDF Royal Medical Services
2Senior Consultant Paediatrician & Paediatric Infectious Diseases & Rheumatologist Department of Paediatrics BDF Royal Medical Services 
3Consultant Paediatric Cardiologist Department of Cardiology BDF Royal Medical Services.

Abstract: Presentation of digeorge syndrome can be mainly with congenital cardiac defect and affected fetus usually have cardiac anomalies such as truncus arteriosus, tetralogy of fallot, ventricular septal defect, pulmonary atresia or interrupted aortic arch. (4), (5). The most common cardiac defect in a baby with 22q11.2 is truncus arteriosus and interrupted aortic arch. Antenatally polyhydraminos can be detected by ultrasound and fetus microphally, thymic hypoplasia, renal anomalies, and cleft palate can be also detected by ultrasound. We reported acase of neonate born with massive pleural effusion, generalized odema, hydrocele and few dysmorphic features. Fish study confirmed micro deletion of 22 q 11.2 and echo revealed finding of truncus arteriosus 
[Dr. Sohier Ahmed, Dr. Wahid Ali Agab, Dr. Suad Rashid Al Amer. DiGeorge Syndrome Can Be Presented with Hydrops and Asubtle Dysmorphic Features. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(4): 95-96]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030417.09.
Keywords: DiGeorge Syndrome; Hydrops; Asubtle Dysmorphic; Feature

10. Haemolysin and hyaluronidase genes of Streptococcus agalactiae recovered from mastitic cows milk
Gama Abd Elgaber Mohamed Younis (Affiliation: Professor and head of the Department of Bacteriology), * Rasha Mohamed Elkenany, and Shaimaa Abd Elhaleem Nabih
Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
*Corresponding author:,; Telephone: 01090226696, 01000896736

Abstract: Streptococcal mastitis causes great economic losses in dairy industries all over the world; therefore the aim of the research is to investigate the prevalence of Streptococci in mastitic cows, detection of titre of haemolysin as well as identification of two virulence genes in S. agalactiae ) including β- hemolysin/ cytolysin (cylE) and hyl (hyaluronidase) genes (. About 110 (64.7%) out of 170 milk samples from cows were mastitic either clinical (48.2%) or subclinical mastitis (51.8%) with Streptococci positive. Identification of S. agalactiae (50, 45.45%), S. uberis (46, 41.82%) and S. dysgalactiae (14, 12.73%) were screened by biochemical methods. Six of 10 isolates of S. agalactiae produced haemolysin titre ranged from 1:16 to 1:64. By PCR amplification, 6 (60%) of 10 phenotypically beta (β) haemolysis on modified Edward's media and sheep blood agar were cylE gene positive and 3 (30%) of 10 isolates were hyl gene positive. The genotype of β-hemolysin of S.agalactiae seemed to be having correlation with the expression of their phenotypes and also correlating well with the result of titres of haemolysin. The high percentage of S. agalactiae cylE gene and hyl gene in the present study help in understanding of the distribution of S. agalactiae and contribute to the establishment of preventive approaches to reduce the spread of infection.
[Younis, G. A., Rasha, M.E., and Shaimaa, A. N. Haemolysin and hyaluronidase genes of Streptococcus agalactiaerecovered from mastitic cows milk. Biomedicine and Nursing 2017;3(4): 97-104]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj030417.10.
Keywords: S. agalactiae, mastitis, β-haemolysin, cylE gene, hyl gene.

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