ISSN 2379-8203

Biomedicine and Nursing
Volume 4 - Issue 2 (Cumulated No. 13), June 25, 2018. (COVER)

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1. vanB Positive Vancomycin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Clinical Isolates in Shendi City, Northern Sudan
Leila M Abdelgadeir 1 and Mogahid M Elhassan 2
1Department of Microbiology, College of Medical Laboratory Science, Shendi University, Shendi, Sudan.2Department of Microbiology, College of Medical Laboratory Science, Sudan University of Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.

Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus is associated with different infections ranging from skin and soft tissue infections to endocarditis and fatal pneumonia. S. aureus is still the most common bacterial species isolated from inpatient specimens and the second most common from outpatient specimens. The aims of this project were out to estimate the prevalence of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and also to determine which genes are responsible for VRSA phenomenon. A total of 123 methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were isolated from 200 clinical samples. The VRSA were tested using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Out of the 123 isolates, 6.5% were VRSA. The resistivity of S. aureus to other antibiotics was also adopted by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. All of the 8 VRSA isolates were found to be resistant to nitrofurantoin, penicillin, ampicillin, kanamycin, clindamycin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin. All VRSA isolates were confirmed to carry vanB gene. The study concluded that PCR assay was rapid and accurate technique for the identification of vanB gene of VRSA strains as compared to the conventional methods since the time was taken is less and can help efficiently in controlling and management of the emergence of multi drugs resistant pathogen such as S. aureus.
[Leila M Abdelgadeir and Mogahid M Elhassan. vanB Positive Vancomycin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureusamong Clinical Isolates in Shendi City, Northern Sudan. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(2): 1-6]. ISSN 2379- 8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040218.01.

​Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, VRSA, vanA gene, vanB gene, mecA, PCR

2. The relationship between quality of work life and caring behaviors of nurses
Saeid Hossein Oghli1, Mahnaz Seyed Shohadaei2, Mohammad Reza Karimirad*3, Ali Hassanpour Dehkordi4Forough Rafiei2
1. Abhar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abhar, Iran
2. Iran University of medical sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3. Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
4. School of allied medical scinces, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord,

Abstract: Background and objective: care is the base of the nursing knowledge and profession and it is considered as the basic need of humans. The efficiency of nursing human resources in the health systems relies on the measures taken to protect their body and soul in the organization. These measures include welfare facilities and health services, incentive plans, and job fit, called as work life quality. Thus, the current research was conducted to evaluate the relationship between quality of work life and caring behaviors of the nurses. Methodology: This cross- sectional study is a correlational study, in which 102 nurses working in cancer units of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected using convenience sampling method. The data collection tool was a demographic characteristics questionnaire, quality of work life questionnaire, and a nurses' caring behavior questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data using SPSS 16 software. Results: results revealed that 60.24% of nurses stated quality of their work life at moderate level. In addition, the mean and standard deviation of the caring behaviors from the nurses' viewpoint was 5.8 and 0.66, respectively. In dimensions of “professional knowledge and skills" and "respect for others”, the highest and the lowest mean and standard deviation scores were obtained, respectively. According to the results of Pearson test, no significant relationship was found between quality of work life and nursing caring behaviors. Conclusion: While nurses provided caring behaviors at a desirable level, only 2% of them considered the quality of their work at a high level. Therefore, conducting similar studies in other units of hospital is recommended.
[Hossein Oghli S, Seyed Shohadaei M, Karimirad MR, Hassanpour Dehkordi A, Rafiei F. The relationship between quality of work life and caring behaviors of nurses. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(2): 7-11]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040218.02.

​Keywords: Quality of work life, caring behaviors, nursing

3. Nurses Perception and Performance on Duties of Patient's Rights
Rania Ismail Moussa, and Samia Roshdy Soliman
Clinical Instructor Department, Faculty of Nursing, Damanhour University, Egypt

Abstract: In recent years, advocacy of patients' rights gain greater attention in both international and regional level. Healthcare organizations seeking quality developed laws, rules and standards that protect patient rights. Nurses play an important role in providing patient care. Nurses are the advocator for patient within health care system and they have a responsibility to help the patient understand more fully information presented, and in carrying out that their actions must be guided by ethical beliefs and values. Aim: To examine the efficiency of nurses in performing duties concerning patients' rights. Study Setting: The study was conducted in inpatient surgical units of the Damanhour National Medical Hospital. Study Design: The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Subject of the study: Nurse Subjects were all (65) nurses and Patients subjects (100) including all patients who were present at time of data collection. Tools: The data was collected through rating scale to identify nurses' perception about patient rights; observational sheet and patient questionnaire. Results: The study illustrated that the majority of staff nurses have a good perception about most of patients' rights. While their performance for most of patient rights were poor. Recommendation: It is recommended that, developing periodical in-services educational programs about how to deal with patient's rights and disseminating disclosure policy hospital wide and creating a system for patient’s complaints follow up and management.
[Rania Ismail Moussa, and Samia Roshdy Soliman. Nurses Perception and Performance on Duties of Patient's Rights. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(2): 12-17]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040218.03.
Keywords: Patient rights, nurses perception and nurses performance.

4. Surveying the caring behaviors of nurses working in the cancer sectors affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Saeid Hossein Oghli *1, Mahnaz Seyed Shohadaei2, Mohammad Reza Karimirad3, Forough Rafiei2, Mojtaba Ajorlou4
1. Abhar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abhar, Iran
2. Iran University of medical sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3. Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
4. Iran University of medical sciences, Hazrat Fatemeh Hospital, Tehran, IR

Abstract: Objective: The practice of assisting, providing, or facilitating the care for patients or other groups with hidden or obvious needs is to improve or improve the human condition or lifestyle, and there is a dynamic process in the service of patients that can Patients' satisfaction levels affect health care providers, especially nurses. Hence, recognizing caring behaviors and its dimensions can help nurses to provide better and more effective care. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. So, 102 nurses working in the cancer wards of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected by convenience sampling method in 2013. The data gathering tool was a demographic characteristics questionnaire and nurses' care behaviors questionnaire. For analyzing the data, descriptive and inferential statistics were used by SPSS software version 16. Results: The results of this study showed that the average and standard deviation of the total care behaviors from the nurses' point of view was 5.08 ± 0.66 which was the highest in "professional knowledge", and "respect for the other" the lowest mean score and deviation The benchmark is obtained. Conclusion: According to the results, most nurses focus on physical aspects of care and are less concerned with other aspects of caring behaviors that can affect the satisfaction of patients with nursing care that they receive.
[Hossein Oghli S, Seyed Shohadaei M, Karimirad MR, Rafiei F, Ajorlou, M. Surveying the caring behaviors of nurses working in the cancer sectors affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(2): 18-22]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040218.04.
Keywords: Nursing Care Behaviors, Department of Cancer, Medical Sciences

5. Implication of Turkey broiler flocks in prevalence of antibiotic resistance capmpylobacter spp.
Samah Eid1*,
1Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production- Animal Health Research Institute.

2Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production- Animal Health Research Institute.

3Reference Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production- Animal Health Research Institute.

4Animal Health Research Institute- Zagazig Provincial Laboratory
Corresponding author*: Name: Samah Eid. Address: 46-7-22, Rehab city, New Cairo, Cairo, Egypt. Mobile

no.:+201068713726; Phone no.:+20226075854; Email:

Abstract: A total of 100 samples were collected from diseased fattening turkeys, samples included fecal swabs, liver, and intestine were subjected to conventional examination for campylobacter species identification, isolates were confirmed by PCR through the detection of cadF gene the conserved for genus campylobacter, ceuE gene specific for campylobacter coli, and Cj gene specific for campylobacter jejuni, the results revealed that 16/100 (16%) of samples were positive for campylobacter species, 9/16 (56.2%), 7/16(43.8%) of isolates belong tocampylobacter jejuni, and campylobacter coli, respectively. Phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance attributes of isolates were studied by disc diffusion and PCR. The results revealed that 16/16 (100%) of isolates showed antibiotic resistance patterns to ampicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Resistance rates against cefotaxime and gentamycin were (81.3%), (87.5, %), respectively. Only 3/16 (18.8%) of isolates showed resistance rate against imipenem, 16/16 (100%) isolates demonstrated profiles of multidrug resistant strains. Studying the genetic antibiotic resistance attributes of isolates by PCR revealed that 10/16 (62.5%), 9/16 (56.2%) of isolates havetet O gene for tetracycline resistance, and cmeB gene for efflux pump, respectively. PCR failed to detect blaOXAgene for betalactams. The findings raised concerns due to the presence of circulating campylobacter spp in turkey farms that may impose a potential high public health risk caused by their zoonotic nature, furthermore disseminate antibiotic resistance genes against key antibiotics used in veterinary and human medicine.

[Samah Eid,  Nayera, M. Al-Atfeehy, Abdel Hafeez, Samir, Hefny, Y. Hefny. Implication od Turkey broiler flocks in prevalence of antibiotic resistance capmpylobacter sspBiomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(2): 23-30]. 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040218.05.

Key words: antimicrobial resistance, PCR, capmpylobacter spp, turkeys

6. Study of Liver Lesions using Computed Tomography
Mohamed Hasaneen1, 3, Mohamed Yousef1, 2, Ahmed Abukonna1, Zinab Mohamed4
1College of Medical Radiological Sciences, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan
2Radiologic Sciences Program, Batterjee Medical College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
3Al-Ghad International College of Applied Medical Science, Medical Imaging Technology Department, Dammam, KSA
4Federal ministry of health –Sudan -Khartoum

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of CT in the diagnosis of liver lesions. And furthermore to determine which lesion in the liver with high incidence, and to find out the Geographic distribution of the liver lesions in Sudan. This is a retrospective study was conducted in Fedail, Khartoum and Royal scan center to study the liver lesions using computed tomography, included Sixty patients with focal tumoral liver lesions were recruited for four months period, and their triphasic CT scans findings were evaluated and later correlated with final Diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of triphasic CT scan were calculated. The results of the study revealed that the high incidence of liver lesions was (45%) in the age group between (41-60) years old (Figure 2). The high incidence of was liver metastasis (33.3%) and solid mass (33.3%)و and was commonest in age group (41-60) years old which had an incidence of (45%), it commonest in male, had an incidence of (60%) (Figure 3), the most patients came from center, north, and west of Sudan (Figure 4). The solid mass of the liver was commonest in age group (61-80) years old had an incidence of (45%), it commonest in male, had an incidence of (65%), most patients came from central of Sudan had incidence (50%) and it commonest in right lobe of the liver had incidence (50%). Triphasic CT scan is a good non-invasive tool and can be used as the first line imaging modality for differentiating benign and malignant focal liver lesions. Benign lesions like haemangioma can be reliably differentiated from malignant liver lesion; therefore unnecessary biopsies can be avoided.
[Mohamed Hasaneen, Mohamed Yousef, Ahmed Abukonna, Zinab Mohamed. Study of Liver Lesions using Computed Tomography. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(2): 31-37]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040218.06.
Key Word: Triphase, Computed Tomography, Liver Lesions

7. Changing BaCl2 particles size by varying ionic ratios of the reactants
Kianoosh Mokhberi1, Aydin Berenjian2, Raja Mahanama1, Anvar Khodiev2 
1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran.
2. Department of Chemical & Process Engineering, The University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.

Abstract: The initial concentration ratios of reactants were varied in order to investigate their influence on decreasing mean particle size and morphology of BaCl2 particles in a stirred tank reactor. The experiments were carried out via a simple precipitation reaction of calcium chloride and barium sulfate. Samples were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on the results obtained, varying ionic ratios of the reactants (Ba to Cl (R)) significantly changes the resulted barium chloride particle size. 
[Kianoosh Mokhberi, Aydin Berenjian, Raja Mahanama, Anvar Khodiev. Changing BaCl2 particles size by varying ionic ratios of the reactants. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(2): 38-40]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040218.07.
Keywords: Precipitation; barium chloride; stirred tank reactor; particle size.

8. Illness Detection on Cotton Leaves by Gabor Wavelet 
Afshin shaabany, Fatemeh jamshidi
Sama Technical and Vocational Training College, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz Branch, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract: In this article, a research of distinguishing and diagnosing cotton illness is presented, the pattern of illness is important part in that, and various features of the images are extracted in other words. the color of actual infected image, there are so many illness occurred on the cotton leaf so the leaf color for different illness t is also different, also there are various other features related to shape of image, also there are different shape of holes are present on the leaf of the image, generally the leaf of infected image have elliptical shape of holes, so calculating the major and minor axis is the major task. The features could be extracted using self organizing feature map together with a back-propagation neural network is used to recognize color of image. This information is used to segment cotton leaf pixels within the image, now image which is under consideration is well analyzed and depending upon this software perform further analysis based on the nature of this image. 
[Afshin shaabany, Fatemeh jamshidi. Illness Detection on Cotton Leaves by Gabor Wavelet. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(2): 41-44]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040218.08.
Keywords: neural network; fuzzy curves; detection. Gabor wavelet Species richness; beta-diversity; taxonomic diversity; forest

9. Occurrence and Implications of resistance to antibiotics and organic acids in Enterococcus faecalis isolated from fruit juices marketed in Ado-Ekiti
*David, O. M., Fagbohun, E. D. and Falegan, C. R. 
Department of Microbiology, University of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Abstract: The study investigated the growth of Enterococcus faecalis in various fruit juice products, their resistance to antibiotics and their ability to multiply in the presence of most organic acids commonly employed as preservatives. Enterococcus faecalis strains were isolated from seven out of nine fruit juices using serial dilution and pour plate methods. The resistance of the isolates to some antibiotics and increasing amounts of organic acids was determined using disc diffusion and agar dilution methods respectively. The total bacterial counts observed in the juice samples ranged between 20 CFU/ml in brand EXT and 460 CFU/100mL in brand MNN. The total coliform count in Brand EXT exceeded all other samples (275 CFU/100mL) but enterococcal load in the fruit juices ranged between 10 CFU/100mL to CFU/100mL in brand MNN and brand LCS respectively. The isolates were all susceptible to vancomycin while resistance was observed to other antibiotics evaluated. Resistance of the isolates was 93% and 90% to erythromycin and penicillin respectively. Enterococcus faecalis strains EFTT, EFFA and EFBT were all inhibited at higher concentrations of acetic acid (1.25 and 5.0%w/v) while lower concentrations (0.31% and below) could not effectively inhibit the growth of the isolates. The inhibitory effect of citric acid was pronounced in EFFA. At 0.31% w/v all the isolates were inhibited except EFFA. Benzoic acid had inhibitory effect on just two of the five strains while formic acid demonstrated no inhibition to all the isolates. EFFA and EFXT were also resistant to ethanoic acid at the tested concentrations. Since most organic acids used for the preservation of most fruit juice allowed the survival of Enterococcus faecalis, there is a need to provide rational basis for designing interventions that are needed to assure the microbiological safety of final products. 
[David, O. M., Fagbohun, E. D. and Falegan, C. R.. Occurrence and Implications of resistance to antibiotics and organic acids in Enterococcus faecalis isolated from fruit juices marketed in Ado-Ekiti. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(2): 45-50]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040218.09.
Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance, Enterococcus faecalis, Fruit Juice, Bacterial Count, organic acids.

10. Study of embryonic development and evolution stages of Yellow fin sea bream (Acanthopagrus latus).
Gholamhossein Mohammadi1, Mojgan Khodadadi2
1.South of Iran Aquaculture Research center, 
2.Department of fisheries, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, Ahvaz, Iran

Abstract: In present survey development and evolution stages of Yellow fin sea bream (Acanthopagrus latus) fetus in two averages temperature 21 and 24 centigrade degree were studied. The brooders were collected from fishery grounds of south of Persian Gulf. Average diameter of lipid globule was 185±0.005 micron and eggs diameter after fertilization were 740.33±0.012. Length of newly birth larvae was 1679.34 microns. Incubation period in 24 ◦C was 26 hours and 15 minutes. During the incubation 2-cells stage was observed at 20 minutes. Embryonic evolution stages were distinguished in these study as follows: 1: Two-Cells Blastomere, 2 four -Cells Blastomere, 3: eight -Cells Blastomere, 4: sixteen - Cells Blastomere, 5: Thirty two -Cells Blastomer, 6: Morula, 7: High Blastula Stage 8: Flat Blastula Stage, 9: Starting of Gastrulation, 10: Gastrulation, 11: Neurula, 12: Observation Embryo Profile, 13: Closing of blastopore, 14: The Formation of Somite, 15: The Appearance of Heart, 16: The Formation of Optic Cup, 17: Increasing of Pigmentation, 18: Hatching (10%), 19: Hatching (100%). 
[Gholamhossein Mohammadi, Mojgan Khodadadi. Study of embryonic development and evolution stages of Yellow fin sea bream (Acanthopagrus latus).. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(2): 51-56]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040218.10.

Key worlds: Yellow fin sea bream, Acanthopagrus latus, fetus, evolution, Incubation, Persian Gulf

11. Detection of seed borne mycoflora seeds of two medicinal plants Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) Jeffrey and Psoralea corylifolia L.
Pooja Bhardwaj1, Usha Yadav1 and N.C. Joshi 2
1Department of Botany, H.N.B. Govt. PG College, Khatima, U.S. Nagar (U.K) INDIA
2Department of Applied Sciences, Amrapali Institute of Technology and Sciences, Amrapali Group of Institutes, Shikshya Nagar, Lamachaur, Haldwani-263139 (U.K) INDIA,

Abstract: Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) Jeffrey and Psoralea corylifolia L. are the two important medicinally plants. D. palmatus belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. These seeds are used to treat many diseases but some fungi spoil these seeds causing a great loss to human beings. There are no previous reports of mycoflora on seeds of D. palmatus and P. corylifolia. Among the fungi genera isolated from the seeds of D. palmatus were Aspergillus Sp., Fusarium, Mucor spp., Pythium proliferatum and Rhizopus oryzae, and on seeds of P. corylifolia, Aspergillus Spp., Fusarium, Mucor spp., Pseudallescheria boydii and Rhizopus oryzae. Seeds show that fungus Aspergillus Sp. and Rhizopus oryzae had very high percentage of infection and Fusarium, Mucor spp., Pythium proliferatum and Pseudallescheria boydii had very low percentage of infection. 
[Pooja Bhardwaj, Usha Yadav and N.C. Joshi. Detection of seed borne mycoflora seeds of two medicinal plants Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) Jeffrey and Psoralea corylifolia L. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(2): 57-61]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 11. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040218.11.
Keywords: D. palmatus, P. corylifolia, mycoflora, medicinal plant.

12. Predicting Stock Abundance of the Barents Sea Capelin Using Genetic Programming
Hossam Faris1, Mouhammd Alkasassbeh2, Alaa Sheta3
1. Department of Business Information Systems Department, University of Jordan, Amman, 11942, Jordan
2. Department of Computer Science, Mutah University, Mutah, Jordan
3. Department of Computers and Systems, The Electronics Research Institute (ERI), Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: Genetic Programming (GP) has been used significantly to solve many problems in modeling and prediction for dynamical systems. In this paper we explore the use of GP in solving the prediction problem for stock abundance of the Barents Sea capelin. The Barents Sea at the Northwest Atlantic, Capelin plays an important role of the forage and commercial fish. The distribution of the capelin fish has shown dramatic changes in its biology during the 1990s. This change affected the major ground fish stocks. Many soft computing techniques were used to predict the Capelin stock distribution. We propose the GP technique for modeling the Capelin stock problem in of the Barents Sea. The proposed GP model is compared with two other models developed using well known techniques; the Artificial Neural Network (ANNs) and the Multiple Linear model Regression (MLR) model. The proposed GP model shows higher capability and accuracy in prediction the Capelin stock distribution.
[Hossam Faris, Mouhammd Alkasassbeh, Alaa Sheta. Predicting Stock Abundance of the Barents Sea Capelin Using Genetic Programming. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(2): 62-71]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 12. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040218.12.
Keywords: Genetic Programming, Modeling, Capelin stock distribution, Barents Sea, Prediction.

13. Evaluation of Duplex-PCR Based Method to Differentiate Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex and Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Using RNA Polymerase (Rpob) Gene
Hala Abdel Salam Abdel Aziz, Azza Mahmoud El Hefnawy, Reem Abdel Hameed Harfoush, Rasha Sherif El Sheikh
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt.

Abstract: The detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis) in clinical samples is a major priority in the control of tuberculosis. Since the early 1980s, there has been an increase in diseases caused by Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM), affecting immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons. Mixed infections have been reported. Therefore, it is important to be able to differentiate both organisms during the early stage of diagnosis. Identification by conventional biochemical tests have been fraught with a long turn-around time, other methods based on lipid analysis are used only in few laboratories. The PCR linked methods using specific target genes have provided alternative rapid approaches. This study aimed at the evaluation of the efficiency and usefulness of duplex-PCR (DPCR) targeting RNA polymerase (rpoB) gene as a tool to differentiate M. tuberculosis complex from NTM strains from suspected patients of pulmonary tuberculosis compared to conventional culture-based methods. Forty one mycobacterial strains, isolated from sputum samples of pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients, were subjected to different phenotypic (conventional culture and biochemical tests) and genotypic methods (DPCR targeting rpoB gene), for identification and differentiation of M.tuberculosis complex and NTM isolates. Sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were used to assist in the further identification of NTM strains. Thirty seven isolates identified as M.tuberculosis phenotypically, produced an amplicon of 235 bp using DPCR, while the remaining 4 isolates identified as NTM by phenotypic methods, produced an amplicon of 136 bp by the same assay. Accordingly, DPCR assay revealed 100% sensitivity and specificity as compared to phenotypic tests. Moreover, the four 136 bp amplicons when analyzed by sequencing and RFLP using Hae III and Msp I restriction enzymes, showed complete concordance with the phenotypic results. DPCR assay based on rpoB gene with 2 different sets of primers amplifying 2 different sized DNA from a single target gene provides a rapid and reliable mean for the differential identification of M.tuberculosis and NTM isolates in cultures, even coexistence of both organisms could be detected by the presence of 2 different amplicons in a single reaction mixture. Further studies are needed to evaluate other target genes in comparison with our gene, and to determine the applicability of these molecular assays on clinical samples. 
[Abdel Aziz HA, El Hefnawy AM, Harfoush RA, El Sheikh RS. Evaluation of Duplex-PCR Based Method to Differentiate Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex and Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Using RNA Polymerase (Rpob) Gene. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(2): 72-78]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 13. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040218.13.
Key words: Mycobacteria, RFLP, Sequencing.

14. An Analysis to Hybrids of Particle Swarm Optimisation and Genetic Algorithms
Ahmad Rezaee Jordehi, Jasronita Jasni 
Department of Electrical Engineering, University Putra Malaysia

Abstract: Particle swarm optimisation (PSO) is one of the most promising and most efficient optimisation techniques that exposes desirable computational behavior. However, hybridizing it with other optimisation techniques can lead to even more efficient algorithms, because by hybridization the constituent techniques reinforce each other’s strengths and cover each others’ shortcomings. One of the algorithms that its hybridization with PSO leads to encouraging outcomes is genetic algorithm. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis on various variants which are hybrids of PSO and GA operators. 
[Ahmad Rezaee Jordehi, Jasronita Jasni. An Analysis to Hybrids of Particle Swarm Optimisation and Genetic Algorithms. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(2): 79-83]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 14. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040218.14.
Keywords: Particle swarm optimisation, Genetic algorithms, Hybrid.

15. Some Effects of Mercury Chloride on the Liver and Gills of Clarias gariepinus.
Ayanda O Isaac, Olasehinde G Iyabo, Ajayi A Adesola, Fatiregun A Felicia
Department of Biological Sciences, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State. Nigeria

Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the effects of mercury chloride on Clarias gariepinus. A static renewal bioassay was adopted in which the test media was renewed at the same concentration once every 48 hours. Based on the LC50 (0.5mg/L), three concentrations, 2.5mg/L, 1.25mg/L, 0.625mg/L mercury chloride in 25 liters water, representing 1/5, 1/10, 1/20 of the LC50 respectively were administered on C. gariepinus juveniles. The control was not given any concentration of the mercury chloride. Six fishes were sacrificed from each treatment group and the control group at five days intervals. The gills and livers were removed and prepared for histopathological observation. The histological examination of the liver and gill tissues showed changes which include locally extensive vacuolar degeneration and variably sized cytoplasmic vacuoles of the hepatocytes and swelling of epithelium in the treated groups. Gills and liver of fishes in the control group did not exhibit any of these changes i.e. the histology of these organs showed no alteration in the control. The study shows that mercury chloride exhibits toxic effects on Clarias gariepinus.
[Ayanda OI, Olasehinde GI, Ajayi AA, Fatiregun AF. Some Effects of Mercury Chloride on the Liver and Gills of Clarias gariepinus. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(2): 84-91]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 15. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040218.15.
Keywords: Mercury Chloride, Clarias gariepinus, Toxicity, Histopathology, LC50.

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