BIOMEDICINE & NURSING


ISSN 2379-8203

Biomedicine and Nursing
Quarterly
Volume 4 - Issue 3 (Cumulated No. 14), September 25, 2018. (COVER)
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When you submit manuscript(s), please mention that it is submitted to Biomedicine and Nursing


1. Structured Teaching Program on Occupational Health Hazards among Painting Workers at Elherafeyien City in Cairo
Fathia Ahmed Mersal and Omima Mohamed Esmat
Community Health Nursing Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Egypt

khtottakh@gmail.com


Abstract: Background: Exposure to hazardous chemicals of paints in developing countries is common. The consequences of not following safety practice guidelines can be fatal. Aim: This study aim to evaluate the structured teaching program on occupational health hazards among painting workers in El-Herafeyien City. Research design: a quasi-experimental study used in this study. Sample: A purposive sample of 60 spray-painting workers. Tools used in this study were demographic characteristics; assessment of occupational health problems; knowledge of spray painting workers regarding occupational hazards and safety and observation checklist to assess use of personal protective devices among workers. Results: it showed that 75% of workers had multiple symptoms, 51.6% had respiratory problems. Workers had unsatisfactory knowledge and practice pre structured teaching program while majority of them had satisfactory knowledge and practice post structured teaching program. It revealed that highly significant correlation among job duration, multiple symptoms and bronchial asthma (p˃0.000), it showed that highly significant correlation among smoking, bronchial asthma and productive cough. Conclusion:the structured teaching program improves the knowledge and practice of workers regarding occupational hazards. Recommendations: it suggested continuous in-service training to spray-painters about the importance of protection and practice of safety measures. 
[Fathia Ahmed Mersal and Omima Mohamed Esmat. Structured Teaching Program on Occupational Health Hazards among Painting Workers at Elherafeyien City in Cairo. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(3): 1-11]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040318.01.
Keywords: Structured Teaching Program; Occupational Health Hazards; Practice of Safety Measures; painting Workers; Elherafeyien City


2. A Study of Some of the Factors Hampering the Effective Treatment of Malaria in Niger State, North-Central Nigeria
Goshie, Samuel Ndagi 1, Mathew, Titus1, Musah, Monday 2 

1Department of Biology, Niger State College of Education Minna, Niger State Nigeria
2Department of chemistry, Niger state college of Education, Minna, Niger state, Nigeria

ndagijob2@yahoo.com


Abstract: This study was done in 2017, and was funded by tetfund and was undertaken to find out some of the prevailing factors hampering the effective treatment of Malaria treatment in Niger state-North central Nigeria, with the view to improving health delivery, as it relates to Malaria. The population for this study comprised of health practitioners i.e., doctors and nurses from nine (9), hospitals spread across the three senatorial zones of Niger state. It also comprised of pharmacists from one major town in each of the three senatorial zones. The total sample of practioners is 595, representing 70% of the population. However 544(64%) of valid questionnaire was returned. while 36(100 %?) of the population of registered pharmacists was taken as sample. The main instrument used to acquire the data was questionnaire. The data were analyzed using chi-square, and simple percentages. The result amongst others shows that; lack of recommendation of proper diagnostic test, lack of qualified laboratory technicians to carry out diagnostic test and lack of proper prophylaxis to treated Malaria patients were limiting factors to the effective treatment of malaria in Niger state, as there was a significant difference in statistical analysis at (P<0.0.05) (p<0.001), (p<0.001) thereby, rejecting the hypothesis that says so. Lack of requisite training of pharmacists operating Pharmaceutical shops was also found to be a limiting factor to the treatment of Malaria in Niger state as there was a significant difference in statistical analysis at (P<0.05) (P<0.001) thereby, rejecting the hypothesis that stated so. The followings are recommended; that Niger state government should upgrade its diagnostic laboratories to modern standards and always encourage the use of long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN) as preventive measure. The state can also join in the global research efforts in the search for vaccine for the control of Malaria.
[Goshie, S. N, Mathew, T, Musah, M. A Study of Some of the Factors Hampering the Effective Treatment of Malaria in Niger State, North-Central Nigeria. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(3): 12-21]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040318.02.
Keywords: Factors, Hampering, Effective, Treatment, Malaria, Niger state


3. Scheduling Computerized System for Nurses: Change the Traditional Method to the Electronic Method
Asieh Darvish1, Farzad Towhidkhah2, Rasoul Khayati3, Sina Keyhanian4
1: Corresponding Author: MSc. Medical Information Technology Management, BSc. Nursing, basic Science Dept., Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2: PhD. Biomedical Engineering, Associate Professor, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

3: PhD. Biomedical Engineering, Assistant Professor, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran, khayati@aut.ac.ir
4: MSc. Technology Engineering, Tehran University
darvishasieh@yahoo.com


Abstract: Nurses working shift scheduling is known as a challenging task for nursing managers. In this study a nursing scheduler computerized system is designed to prepare justice schedules in less time. Data is gathered from shift schedules and nursing manager's interview in a big educational and governmental hospital in Iran. The expert entity planning procedure transformed to mathematical functions and system was designed based on Genetic Algorithms programming. Comparison between expert and system designed schedules resulted in 57% reducing of uniform arrangement cost and 93% time saving for nursing manager. Further investigations on designing a system which can be applied in various nursing wards with more constraints and flexibiare recommended.
[Asieh Darvish, Farzad Towhidkhah, Rasoul Khayati, Sina Keyhanian. Scheduling Computerized System for Nurses: Change the Traditional Method to the Electronic Method. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(3): 22-30]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040318.03.
Key words: Computerized system; Working shifts; Scheduling; Nursing; Genetic Algorithms


4. Influence of Physico-Chemical Parameters on the Biodiversity and Distribution of Macro-Invertebrates along the Coastline of Great Kwa River, Southeast Nigeria.
Kalu, Ukoha Ukoha1; Job, Bassey Etim2 & Stephen, Itoro Patrick1
1Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar – Nigeria.
2Department of Biological Oceanography, Faculty of Oceanography, University of Calabar, Calabar – Nigeria.
Email2: bejob_u@yahoo.com


Abstract: Studies were conducted between July and September in the Great Kwa River, Nigeria on the influence of physico-chemical parameters on the biodiversity and distribution of macro-invertebrates. The species composition of the macrobenthos identified during the period of study consisted of 8 macrobenthos belonging to 4 macrobenthic groups were identified. These were Annelida (Oligochaeta) (Glycera convoluta), Mollusca (Bivalvia) (Egeria paradoxa), Mollusca (Gastropoda) (Nerita afra and Pachymelania aurita), Palaemonidae (Crustacea) (Cardisoma armatum, Macrobranchium vollenhovenii, M. Macrobranchion and M. equidens. Results of the study also revealed that there were variations in the physico-chemical parameters during the period of study. Temperature ranged between 25.4 – 25.80C with a mean of 25.6 ± 2.280C at Station 1 in July, with a range between 25.4 – 25.90C with a mean of 25.6 ± 2.220C at Station 2, while in August, temperature ranged between Station 1, with a range of between 25.1 – 25.50C with a mean of 25.3 ± 2.240C at Station 2. In September, temperature ranged between 25.5 – 25.60C with a mean of 25.5 ± 2.250C at Station 1, and a range of 25.6 – 25.70C with a mean of 25.65 ± 2.250C at Station 2. pH ranged between 5.64 – 5.66 with a mean of 6.65 ± 1.54 at Station 1 in July, 6.63 – 5.73 with a mean of 5.67 ± 1.54 at Station 2 and between 6.58 – 6.71 with a mean of 6.65 ± 1.54 in August at Station 1, 6.58 – 6.72 with a mean of 6.65 ± 1.54 at Station 2, while in September, pH ranged between 5.72 – 5.74 with a mean of 6.73 ± 1.55 at Station 1 and between 6.54 – 6.78 with a mean of 6.66 ± 1.54 at Station 2. Dissolved oxygen (DOmgL-1) ranged between 5.84 – 6.4mgL-1 with a mean of 6.16 ± 1.58mgL-1 in July at Station 1. At Station 2 dissolved oxygen maintained a fixed value of 5.0mgL-1 with a mean of 5.0 ± 0.0mgL-1 in July and August at both Stations, while in September, a DO range of between 5.4 – 5.6mgL-1 with a mean of 5.5 – 1.53mgL-1 was recorded at Station 1, and a range of 5.0 - 5.40C with a mean of 5.2 ± 1.51mgL-1 at Station 2. Salinity was not detected in the river water throughout the period of study. Higher number of macrobenthos were sampled at Stations and Months of high dissolved oxygen, low temperature and slightly acidic content. Ecological indices of the macrobenthos of the Great Kwa River, Nigeria were also observed to vary at each station. At station 1, 4 macrobenthic phyla were recorded with 3 phyla at station 2, while total of 895 individual macrobenthos were recorded at station 1 with 882 individuals at station 2. Margalef”s index (d) was 0.882 at station 1 with an index of 0.737 at station 2, while Shannon-wiener index (H) was 2.945 at station 1, with an index of 2.940 at station 2. Simpson’s index of dominance (D) was 0.00052 at station 1 with an index of 0.00038 at station 2. Significant relationship (p>0.05) was found between macro invertebrate abundance and physico-chemical parameters. 
[Kalu, Ukoha Ukoha; Job, Bassey Etim & Stephen, Itoro Patrick. Influence of Physico-Chemical Parameters on the Biodiversity and Distribution of Macro-Invertebrates along the Coastline of Great Kwa River, Southeast Nigeria. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(3): 31-47]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040318.04.
Keywords: Physico-Chemical Parameters, Biodiversity, Distribution, Macro-Invertebrates, Coastline, Great Kwa River, Nigeria


5. Family planning and gender equity in health, a trend of change during a decade in Iran
Samad Rouhani1, Fatemeh Abdolahi2, Shahin Almasi3
1. Corresponding author Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health; Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran; Hospital Management Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2. Lecturer, Department of Public Health, Mazndaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
3. Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
samad.rouhani@gmail.com


Abstract: Where many studies have investigated the trend of change in the methods of family planning, but study about the change of couple's participation in the family planning programs is limited. A subject that attempts to be covered in this article. This is an exploratory-explanatory study. Using a self made checklist, the relevant data were extracted from the contents of family folders existing in the health centres of the district under study. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and K-squared test. The results of this study revealed that in the beginning of study period contraceptive pills were the most common methods of family planning among the females while in the end of study period there was a shift towards IUD. Also the results of this study have shown that the use of male condom was statistically significantly increased in the end of the decade in contrast to its beginning, but still females undertake the main role in the family planning programs. In addition to the use of more risky methods of family planning methods by females in contrast with methods used by males, females participate in the family planning programs several times more than the males do. The trend of change is towards the increased role of males in the family planning programs that could be an indicator of improvement in gender equity as well as improvement in the quality of family planning programs. More interventions are required to bust this trend.
[Rouhani S, Abdolahi F, Almasi S. Family planning and gender equity in health, a trend of change during a decade in Iran. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(3): 48-52]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040318.05.
Keywords: Ahar; family planning; participation; equity; trend of change


6. The Survey of Believe Visibility and Awareness of Orientation of Smoking at Tehran University
Zahra Babaeian1, Amir Hooshang Maroufzadeh2*, Mehrnoosh Kamalian3, Mehrdad Maroufzadeh4, Mahshid Kamalian5
1: Research Expert, Masters Degree of psychology, Deputy of Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran
2: Research Telecommunication Expert, Master Degree; Deputy of Research Telecommunication Company of Iran, Tehran (Corresponding Author)
3: Research Expert, Deputy of Research and Technology, Ministry of health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran
4: Manager of Guidance School (Name: Samen-OL-A-Emeh), Area 3, Ministry of Education, Tehran, Iran
5: Ministry of health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran
maroufzadehamirhooshang@yahoo.com

Abstract: Studying ages is the time that the behavioral pathway is emerging. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and causes of smoking among students of Tehran University's dormitories. In this study sample census was conducted of all students living in dormitories. The data collection tool was a questionnaire whose reliability and validity had been confirmed. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software, chi-square tests, t tests, and logistic regression analysis. The results showed that the main reason was smoking a cigarette with friends and between smoking and age, sex, ethnicity and years of education were significantly associated, but there are no significant relationships between education and marital status. Also the results showed a low prevalence of smoking among college students, but are also considered a low prevalence and parents should supervise younger children's friend on the rise.
[Zahra Babaeian, Amir Hooshang Maroufzadeh*, Mehrnoosh Kamalian, Mehrdad Maroufzadeh, Mahshid Kamalian. The Survey of Believe Visibility and Awareness of Orientation of Smoking at Tehran University. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(3): 53-56]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. x. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040318.06.
Keywords: Smoking, Student, Trends, Prevalence


7. Study on Drinking Water Treatment Plant Optimization
Paria Amirian1, Meisam Asghari 2, Iman homayoonnezhad3

1Department of Environment, Payame Noor University (PNU), I.R. of IRAN
2 Faculty of chemistry, University of Sistan & Baloochestan, Iran.
mei_asghari_chem@yahoo.com
3Department of Environment, Payame Noor University (PNU), I.R. of IRAN

Abstract: Conventional drinking water treatment plant consists of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration and disinfection units. Depending on water quality influent, each unit can be optimized to achieve the desired water quality effluent, both in design and operation stages. A typical water treatment plant has the combination of processes needed to treat the contaminants in the source water treated by the facility. The presence of unbeatable organic or mineral substances causes some problems in obtaining drinking water. Understanding these phenomena requires taking into account the physical and chemical natures of the water to be treated. Optimization of conventional drinking water treatment plant means “to attain the most efficient or effective use” of your water treatment plant regarding some principles, there are: achievement of consistently high quality finished water on a continuous basis and the importance to focus on overall plant performance, instead of focusing too much on individual processes. This paper presents a study on optimization of conventional drinking water treatment plant that eventually proposing a method to maximize process efficiency with less risks. Overall optimization was carried out by dynamic programming to meet drinking water quality standard. 
[Paria Amirian, Meisam Asghari, Iman homayoonnezhad. Study on Drinking Water Treatment Plant Optimization.Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(3): 57-64]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040318.07.
Keywords: treatment plant, Dynamic programming, Optimization, Coagulation-flocculation, Sedimentation, Filtration, Disinfection


8. Intrauterine Fetal Death: A Review of 50 Cases in the City of Kashan- Iran, 2011-2012
Samimi M1, Khamehchian T2, Mesdaghinia E1, Yousefian V3, Moravveji SA4
1- Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran
2- Anatomical Sciences Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran
3- Student Research Committee, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran
4- Department of Community Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR Iran

Abstract: Background: In one-third of the cases of intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) the cause is unknown; also, previous studies have not adequately determined the role of all possible factors. This paper reviews some of the factors contributing to the occurrence of IUFD. Methods and Materials: This was a case-control study approved by the institutional review board at Kashan University of Medical Sciences. All recorded 50 cases of IUFD during 2011-2012 in the city of Kashan-Iran were included in the study. Maternal and fetal data gathered included maternal age, gestational age, fetal sex, complete blood cells counts, renal function tests, level of blood glucose and viral infections. Data analysis was done using SPSS 14 software. Results: A significant correlation was found between family relation with husband and IUFD. Fetal sex was not an associated factor, though (P=.838). There was a significant association between maternal hemoglobin concentration, serum creatinin levels, and blood sugar with fetal death while Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) levels were not associated with the occurrence of IUFD. It was shown that the studied viral infections can increase the risk of IUFD (P=.012). Conclusion: This study found that the history of previous pregnancy loss, consanguinity and the viral infections are risk factors for IUFD. Maternal hemoglobin concentration, serum creatinin levels, and blood sugar were found to be important factors in IUFD while maternal age, fetal sex and the number of red blood cells were not confirmed in this study to be important factors.
[Samimi M, Khamehchian T, Mesdaghinia E, Yousefian V, Moravveji SA. Intrauterine Fetal Death: A Review of 50 Cases in the City of Kashan- Iran, 2011-2012. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(3): 65-70]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040318.08.
Key words: Consanguinity, Risk factors, Sex, Stillbirth, Viral diseases


9. Application of Diacetone Acrylamide and Adipic Dihydrazide in Epoxy-acrylate Self-crosslinking Latex
Yingdong Guan, Chunlong Sun, Haiyan Li, Shizhen Zhang
Marine Chemical Research Institute, Qingdao, 266071, China
gd821123@126.com

Abstract: The DAAM is used as the functional monomer, and the epoxy-acrylate latex which contains ketone carbonyl is prepared. The latex is mixed with ADH (adipic dihydrazide) and the self-crosslingking latex is prepared. The FTIR and TEM for the film curing are analyzed, test results prove that the reaction between ketone carbonyl and hydrazine has happened during the film curing, and the best condition is in alkaline and weak acid.
[Yingdong Guan, Chunlong Sun, Haiyan Li, Shizhen Zhang. Application of Diacetone Acrylamide and Adipic Dihydrazide in Epoxy-acrylate Self-crosslinking Latex. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(3):71-74]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040318.09.
Key worlds: DAAM, ADH, self-crosslinking.


10. Assessment of In vivo Antioxidant properties of Dacryodes edulis and Ficus exasperata as Anti-Malaria Plants
Conrad A. Omonhinmin and Agbara I. Uche
Department of Biological Science, College of Science & Technology, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, PMB 1023, Nigeria.
E-mails: conrad.omonhinmin@covenantuniversity.edu.ng, aomoconrad@gmail.com

Abstract: The potential anti-oxidant properties of two plants; Dacryodes edulis and Ficus exasperata hitherto linked with treatment of other ailments but increasing implicated in anti-malaria “Agbo” preparation, were evaluated. The anti-oxidant effects of ethanol leaf extracts of D. edulis and F. exasperata were examined using albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) pre-treated with Tween 80 (placebo), CCl4 (-ve control), Vit. E (+ve control) and 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg plants extracts for 7days; intoxicated previously with CCl4 for 2 days. Animal blood and liver tissues were examined for Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS), Reduced Glutathione (GSH) and Catalase (CAT) activities. Phytochemical screening showed reducing sugars, flavonoids, saponins, tannins in the plant species; except cardiac glycosides in D. edulis and alkaloids and terpenoids in F. exasperata. The plant species recorded significant anti-oxidant activites comparable to Vit E. particularly at 200mg/kg treatment (P<0.05). Ethanol extracts of D. edulis and F. exasperata showed significant anti-oxidant action comparable to Vit E and is dose dependent with the 200mg/kg pretreatment showing the most oxidative stress suppressive action and this justifies their inclusion amongst the plants employed for the traditional preparation of the anti-malarial remedies. 
[Omonhinmin AC, Agbara IU. Assessment of In vivo Antioxidant properties of Dacryodes edulis and Ficus exasperata as Anti-Malaria Plants. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(3): 75-81]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online).http://www.nbmedicine.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040318.10.
Keywords: In vivo; anti-oxidant; anti-malaria; Dacryodes edulis; Ficus exasperata


11. An Analysis to Hybrids of Particle Swarm Optimisation and Differential Evolution Algorithm
Ahmad Rezaee Jordehi, Jasronita Jasni
Department of Electrical Engineering, University Putra Malaysia
ahmadrezaeejordehi@gmail.com

Abstract: Particle swarm optimisation (PSO) is one of the most promising optimisation techniques that exposes desirable computational behavior. However, hybridizing it with other optimisation techniques may lead to more efficient algorithms, because by hybridization the constituent techniques reinforce each other’s strengths and cover each others’ shortcomings. One of the algorithms that its hybridization with PSO leads to encouraging outcomes is differential evolution (DE). This paper presents a comprehensive analysis on various variants which are hybrids of PSO and DE. 
[Jordehi R, Jasni J. An Analysis to Hybrids of Particle Swarm Optimisation and Differential Evolution Algorithm. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(3):82-86]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040318.11.
Keywords: Particle swarm optimisation, Differential Evolution, Hybrid.


12. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of the Trehalose Gene from Yemen Soil Bacterial Genome
Basita, A. Hussein1, Soliman, M. H.1, Gamal El-Din, A. Y.1 and Dawlah, A.M. 2
1Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University 
2 Department of Plant Productions, Faculty of Agriculture, Thamar University, Yemen
basitah2000@yahoo.com

Abstract: The trehalose gene is found in a wide range of organisms such as bacteria, yeast, fungi, plants and animals. Twelve bacterial isolates were purified from soil samples collected from three governorates (Thamar, Hodidah and Sana’a) in Yemen state. Unique biochemical and physical properties make the nonreducing disaccharide, trehalose a good protectant against various stresses (temperature and pH). Ten random primers were used in the present study to characterize these bacterial isolates. Among those, six primers generated reproducible and easily scorable RAPD profiles. The number of amplified DNA fragments ranged from 8 to 11 amplicons per primer. The results of molecular analysis (RAPD) revealed 85.18% polymorphism and the similarity indices ranged from 44.1 to 97.1%. Two specific oligonucleotide primers were used for the amplification of the two trehalose-6-phosphate synthesis (TPS or Ost A gene) and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphate (TPP or Ost B gene) genes. The electrophorized band that is equivalent to 1425 bp in length was characterized in two bacterial isolates (s1-A) and (s1-B). Moreover, DNA sequencing was performed to the retrieved band (1425 bp). The reading frame of the 398 bp as a forward and 404 bp as a reverse reading frame was carried out in Germany for the proposed trehalose gene. The DNA sequencing alignment was screened using database of the trehalose gene in the Genbank databases. The 26 strains of E. coli showed 100% and another 5 and 25 strains of the same bacterium showed 99 and 98% similarity respectively to the characterized trehalose gene in the present study. 
[Basita, A. Hussein, Soliman, M. H., Gamal El-Din, A. Y. and Dawlah, A.M. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of the Trehalose Gene from Yemen Soil Bacterial Genome. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(3): 87-94]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040318.12.
Keywords: Trehalose gene, RAPD, Stress, E. coli


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