ISSN 2379-8203


4.Biomedicine and Nursing
Volume 4 - Issue 4 (Cumulated No. 15), December 25, 2018. (COVER)

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1. Myocardial Infarction and Angina Pectoris (Project)

Maha Mohamed Abo El­Mattey (Student)
School of Nursing, Kaser Elainey, Egypt

Abstract: Survivors of myocardial infarction have a hypofibrino lytic state, characterized by increased basal plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI I) activity combined with low tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity after venousocclusion test', On the other hand, tPA antigen concentrations may well pro ve to be high!", Similar findings have been observed in patients with angina pectoris l> SJ. In one report, increased plasma PAI I activity was found to be an independent risk factor for reinfarction and cardiac death among young survivors of Mil. The fibr inolytic key components tPA and PAI I, are thus to be considered as novel cardiovascular risk factors. The present study was designed to evaluate tPA antigen and PAI I as predictors for cardiovascular events; myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death, com• pared with previously established risk factors, in patients with severe angina pectoris and angiographically verified coronary artery disease.
[Maha Mohamed Abo El­Mattey. Myocardial Infarction and Angina Pectoris (Project). Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(4): 1­5]. ISSN 2379 8211 (print); ISSN 2379 8203 (online). 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj0 40418.01.

2. Evaluation of the biostimulant activity of the seaweed extract Sargassum fluitans Børgesen (Sargassaceae) on germination and growth parameters of Arachis hypogea.
Komoe Koffi1* ; Badiane Bintou Camara 1 ; Groga Noël2 ; Kouame Kra Frederic3 ; Zirihi Guede Noël1
1- Laboratory of botanic, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, 22 BOX 582
Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire.
Corresponding author E-mail:
2- Laboratory of improving agricultural production, University Jean Lorougnon Guédé, BOX 150 Daloa, Côte d’Ivoire
3- National Floristic Center, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

Abstract: The objective of the present work is to evaluate the biostimulant activity of seaweed extract Sargassum fluitans Børgesen (Sargassaceae) on germination and growth parameters of arachis hypogea. The preparation of this extract consists in macerating 100 g of vegetable powder in 1 liter of sterile distilled water using a Blinder Blender. To evaluate the effect of the Total Aqueous Extract (E.T.A) on the germination of peanut seeds, the device put in place is completely randomized and consists of 3 repetitions. Five (05) objects are compared, these are: the batch of control bags, no solution is added except distilled water. In the other batches, 200 ml of solution + 5 mg / l (ETA1), 10 mg / l (ETA2) and 15 mg / l (ETA3) of extract powder are respectively made during a watering every two days. Analysis of the results indicates that seaweed extracts stimulate seed germination and groundnut leaf development. The treatment ETA3 with the dose 15 mg / ml had a better rate with 100% of germination. Treatment ETA2 with a dose of 10 mg / ml of solution and treatment of ETA1 with a dose of 5 mg / ml of solution had a germination rate of 80%. As for the control plant, it had a germination rate of 32%. The mineral composition of Sargassum fluitans extract could be used as a biostimulant in peanut culture.
[Komoe Koffi; Badiane Bintou Camara; Groga Noël; Kouame Kra Frederic; Zirihi Guede Noël. Evaluation of the biostimulant activity of the seaweed extract Sargassum fluitans Børgesen (Sargassaceae) on germination and growth parameters of Arachis hypogea. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(4): 6-10]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040418.02.
Keywords: Biostimulant, Total Aqueous Extract, Sargassum fluitans, seaweed, Arachis hypogea, Côte d’Ivoire.

3. Current Situation and Future Development of Acne Treatment Research
Li Zhao1, Zlachevsky Vicky2, Huaijie Zhu3
1Jacksun Easy Biotech Inc. New York, USA.
2 University of Düsseldorf, Cologne, Heinrich Heine, Germany
3Corresponding author E-mail: The Department of Pathology, Columbia University, New York; The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University

Abstract: As a common adolescent facial disease, whelk is recognized by medical science as a kind of facial skin epidermis and pore epidermal keratosis. The pathogenesis is the complete and incomplete blockage of pores, which leads to the abnormal excretion function of normal pores, the retention of fat overflow excrement in pores, the formation of black head, white head acne and fat particles, and the black head and white head acne combined with infection and acne. For whelk, although its occurrence has long been clear, but the treatment is still a worldwide problem. This paper summarizes the current treatment methods and measures for acne in the world. The common points of various treatment methods and measures are local anti-infection and systemic conditioning treatment, but the results are the same, ineffective treatment. The Chinese skin and children's association concluded in the prediction of the acne market survey report 2014-2020 that China is one of the countries with the highest incidence of acne in the world, and the products for acne treatment in China focus on traditional Chinese medicine, plant extract oil, etc., which has not proved any effective products for acne treatment. Common ills and acne removing products in the world, is the product of sugar, lipid and protein such as due to the needs of the manufacturing process, however, in the treatment, not only the realization of the effective treatment of acne, and paste products contain sugar, lipid and protein substances, promoted the complete and not completely blocked pores, treatment also aggravate the occurrence and development of the acne. In this paper, the author thinks that from the growth of the facial skin cell metabolism, change from regulating the growth of biological cells, in does not affect the biological cell function, through the adjustment and change of biological cell growth, make pore jams not, went up from the fundamental to realize the treatment of acne, is the current medicine, biologists face and need to study and subject to be solved.
[Current Situation and Future Development of Acne Treatment Research]. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018; 4(4): 11-14]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040418.03.
Keywords: Acne, whelk cure, whelk occurrence, epidermal keratosis is abnormal, adolescence, pore is blocked

4. Comparative study between Invasive and Non-invasive Mechanical ventilation in treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in preterm infant
Osama A. El Fiki, Yasser M, Ismail, Effat H, Assar, Hassan F, Hassan Department of pediatrics, faculty of medicine, Benha University, Egypt
Telephone: +21003186726, E-mail:

Abstract: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a condition of respiratory distress which commences at or shortly after birth and increases in severity over the first three days of life, and it also is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants and is related inversely to the gestational age. (1) Endotracheal ventilation is related to increasing risks of infection and ventilation-associated lung injuries. Importantly, prolonged duration of endotracheal ventilation induces a higher probability of death or survival with neurologic impairment and/or broncho-pulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in the post neonatal period. Thus there is a trend to minimize the use of mechanical ventilation. (2) Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has gained increased popularity in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) With the increased survival of extreme low gestational age neonates (ELGAN) < 28 week ́s non- intubated. The primary aim of NIV is to provide respiratory support without the pulmonary and non-pulmonary complications associated with intubation and mechanical ventilation. (3) the aim of this work is to compare betweeneffectiveness of invasive mechanical ventilation and non-invasive mechanical ventilation as the first line treatment of respiratory distress syndrome to evaluate their impact on neonatal mortality and morbidity. This was a prospective study conducted over a period of six months from February 2018 to August 2018 including 60 infants suffering from RDS admitted in neonatal care unit (NICU) in Benha University Hospitals and Benha children hospital. A total number of 60 neonates suffering from respiratory distress syndrome were admitted to the NICU. We found no significant difference between invasive and Non-invasive mechanichal ventilation groups in success or mortality rates, (the duration of ventilation) was longer in Non-invasive groups (sepsis and pneumothorax) was higher in invasive group and (apnea, nasal trauma) was higher in Non-invasive group. It appears that HHHFNC is a good alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation in premature newborns with respiratory failure. Anyway some infants did not respond to this mode of respiratory support and require mechanical ventilation.
[Osama A. El Fiki, Yasser M, Ismail, Effat H, Assar, Hassan F, Hassan. Comparative study between Invasive and Non-invasive Mechanical ventilation in treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in preterm infant. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(4): 15-19]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040418.04.
Keywords: respiratory distress syndrome, High flow nasal cannula.

5. Antibacterial and effect of dosage of Methanol and Omidun Extract of Root of V. paradoxa on some diarrheagenic bacteria
M. B. Falana 1, M. O. Bankole 2, A. M. Omemu 3
1Department of Biological Sciences, AL-Hikmah University, P. M. B. 1601, Adewole-Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.2Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB), P. M. B. 2240, Nigeria;3Department of Food Science and Tourism, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB), P. M. B.

Abstract: Root of V. paradoxa extracted using methanol and omidun was tested for efficacy by in vitro assay (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and disc diffusion assay) and effect of dosage on albino rats was determined. The test organisms used include Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli(EPEC ATCC 43887), Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC ATCC 43889) and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Four groups (I-IV) of five rats per group was treated thus: Group I were infected with EPEC and given ciprofloxacin; group II rats were only infected, group III were infected and treated with omidun extract and group IV rats were not infected nor treated rats. The procedure was replicated for each organism, methanol extract and 50mg/mL /100mg/mL of the extracts respectively. Liver and kidney samples of the treated were collected after six hours of observation for diarrhea symptom. Methanol extract gave higher percentage yield (20.80%) more than omidun (19.2%) extract. MIC of methanol extract (3.15 μg/mL -50.0μg/mL) was significantly different (P<0.05) from that of omidun extract (6.25 μg/mL -50.0 μg/mL) on all the tested microorganisms. Higher concentration tested and methanol extract (17.00mm) gave wider inhibition zones than omidun extract (12.67mm). Amounts of active constituents were slightly higher in methanol extracts than in omidun extracts. Livers and kidneys of rats in groups I and IV showed no abnormality. Mild inflammation to focal lymphocytic aggregate was observed in the portal area of liver and kidneys of rats treated with 50mg/mL. Intense infiltration, marked distortion of architecture and vacoular degeneration was seen in group II rats and those of rats treated with 100mg/ml concentration. Hence, omidun is a good extraction solvent and the root extract of V. paradoxa can be toxic at high concentration.
[M. B. Falana, M. O. Bankole, A. M. Omemu. Antibacterial and effect of dosage of Methanol and Omidun Extract of Root of V. paradoxa on some diarrheagenic bacteria. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(4): 20-27].ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040418.05.
Keywords: Vaoular; in vivo; in vitro; efficacy; omidun; V. paradoxa

6. Pathophysiology Changes Occuring in Cardiovascular and Immune Systems In Response to Stress
Mahmoud H. El-Bidawy 1,2
1. Department of BMS, Division of Physiology, College of Medicine, Al-Kharj, Prince Sattam Ibn Abdulaziz University,
2. Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo,

Abstract: Cardiovascular and immune system pathophysiological changes and diseases may be attributed to stress. Sometimes stress may be beneficial when it is not 'overwhelming' as it, may improve performance in certain cases. Modern medicine is focusing on the close relationship between stress and cardiovascular and immune system morbidity and mortality. New therapeutic strategies have to be set in place. Brief naturalistic stressors (such as exams) were associated with potentially adaptive upregulation of some parameters of natural immunity and downregulation of some functions of specific immunity; tended to suppress cellular immunity while preserved humoral immunity On the other hand chronic stressors were associated with suppression of both cellular and humoral immunity. In some cases, physical vulnerability as a function of age or disease also increased vulnerability to immune change during stressors. In mammals, physiological responses such as “fight or flight.” to chronic stressors, include changes that increase the delivery of oxygen and glucose to the heart and the large skeletal muscles. The changes in Immune responses to stressful situations may be part of these adaptive responses. Pychological challenges are capable of modifying various features of the immune response.
[Mahmoud H. El-Bidawy. Pathophysiology Changes Occuring in Cardiovascular and Immune Systems In Response to Stress. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(4): 28-33]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040418.06.

​Keywords: Stress; Pathophysiology of Cardiovascular diseases; Pathophysiology of Immune system

7. Review On Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis And Its Economic Impacts In Cattle

Ahmed Seid
Wolaita sodo university, school of veterinary medicine, Wolaita sodo, Ethiopia,
Tel: +251923347571; Email:

Abstract: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis is one of the most common eye diseases of cattle and is of major economic importance in the world. It is a bacterial infection of the eye that causes inflammation and in severe cases temporary or permanent blindness. In cattle, the gram negative bacterium Moraxella bovis is regarded as the main cause of the disease that affects cattle of all ages and occurs worldwide. Also, Moraxella bovoculi and a range of other bacteria, viruses, and environmental conditions seem to be involved. Moraxella bovis has several pathogenic mechanisms; however, only two, pili and the secretion of a β-hemolytic cytotoxin, have been determined to cause clinical disease. The pili allow the bacteria to attach to the dark cells of the corneal epithelium. The hemolysin is a pore-forming toxin that lyses corneal epithelial cells leading to ulceration and causes lysis of bovine leukocytes. The virulence of Moraxella bovis is influenced by both host and environmental factors. It is one of the examples of the diseases that may cause production losses in both dairy and beef farms in many countries. The economic impact of the disease is significant due to its high contagious nature. Most cattle producers are familiar with this disease but may not know how to best treat it and minimize its spread within the herd. The cost and time used in treating infected cattle adds to the economic losses. The best strategies to prevention and control of an outbreak are maximizing the herd’s immune status, minimizing the concentration of the Moraxella bacteria, and maintaining as irritant-free environment as possible. Treatment decisions are influenced by numerous factors such as effectiveness of the drug selected, cost, labor availability, withholding times, facilities, and availability of veterinary support. Vaccines are partially protective and cannot be completely relied upon to prevent the disease. Coming up with one solution is difficult because of all the contribution factors. Therefore, isolation and a swift reaction are keys in reducing the spread of the disease.
[Ahmed Seid. Review On Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis And Its Economic Impacts In Cattle. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(4): 34-45]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040418.07.
Keywords: Cytotoxin, Economic, Hemolysin, Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis

8. Review On Oestrosis On Sheep And Goat

Abere Dawud and *Asmamaw Aki
Regional Veterinary Diagnostic, Surveillance, Monitoring and Study Laboratory, P.O.Box:326, Asossa, Ethiopia; email address:; Cele phone: +251902330029

Abstract: Oestrosis is form of myiasis caused by larvae of the fly Oestrus ovis. Myiasis is the infection of life human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oestrus ovis, the sheep bot fly, is a widespread species of fly of the genus Oestrus. It is known for its parasitic predation and damage to sheep, deer, goat, camel, dog, and human. The aim of this manuscript is to review available literature on oestrosis in sheep and goat with its economic and zoonotic importance. Oestrus ovis larvae usually inhabit in the nasal cavities and sinuses of sheep and goats, and subsequently cause myiasis. This myiasis severely impairs health condition, causes difficult breathing, mouth breathing, emaciation, weight loss and sometimes, the larvae may migrate into brain causing false gid. Oestrus ovis is an economically important parasite of nasal cavities in sheep and goats worldwide include Ethiopia with occurrence of 94.6% and 75.10 % in central Oromia and Debre Zeit, central Ethiopia respectively. The adult fly is grayish brown and ~12 mm long. The female deposits larvae in and about the nostrils of sheep. These small, clear-white larvae (initially <2 mm long) inter to the nasal cavity and develop. When mature, the larvae leave the nasal passages, drop to the ground, burrow down a few inches, and pupate. The pupal period lasts 3–9 week, depending on the environmental conditions, after which the fly emerges from the pupal case and pushes its way to the surface. Mating soon occurs, and the female begins to deposit larvae. Ivermectin is effective against all stages of Oestrus ovis. Control of nasal bot can be done by application of insecticide and treatment with Ivermectin. This disease has Zoonotic importance in addition of its high economic loss but the disease mostly neglected and physician not well informed about disease. Its economic loss also not well understood especially in Ethiopia so, more research should be done with objective of zoonosis and economic importance.
[Abere Dawud and Asmamaw Aki. Review On Oestrosis On Sheep And Goat. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(4): 46-56]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040418.08.
Keywords: Oestrusovis, Fly, Sheep, Goat

9. The Effect of Self-Care Practices on Pregnant Cardiac Women Outcome and Nursing Implications
Amany Hamed Gad Mohamed1 and Nadia Ahmed Eladham2
1Obstetricsand Gynecological Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
2 Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty Of Nursing, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt

Abstract: Cardiac diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among pregnant women in the developing world. Most women with cardiac disease can go through pregnancy and delivery safely, so long as they are adequately evaluated, counseled and received high quality care. This study aimed to identify the self-care practices performed by pregnant cardiac women in Zagazig university hospilal, to find out the birth outcome behind the self-care practices performed by pregnant cardiac women, and to conduct a mother classes, and provide a handout booklet titled standard self-care practices for educating cardiac pregnant women. Research design: An exploratory descriptive design was utilized in this study. Setting: The study was conducted in antenatal high risk ward & outpatient clinic in obstetric department, at Zagazig university hospital. Subjects: A total of 180 pregnant cardiac women was collected over one year period, starting from the 1st of January 2017 to 31 December 2017. Tools of data collection: A structured interview questionnaire form, it entailed three parts: Part 1: This includes: Socio-demographic characteristics, present pregnancy data, current pregnancy data regarding practices, current treatment regimen, current pregnancy investigations. Part 11: Self-Care Assessment (SCAS). Part 111: Assessing newborn and labor outcome. The study Results: indicates that (100.0%, 100.0%, 96.7%, 91.7%, 81.7%, 80.0%) respectively of the studied cardiac pregnant women had unsatisfactory score levels of reported practices related to practicing exercise, foot care, nutrition, personnel hygiene, teeth care, as well as treatment and follow up of pregnancy. Also, (56.7% & 63.3%) of the studied women had high level of psychological and social stressors and only 3.3% of the women had high total coping level. As regards outcome, 86.7% of the studied cardiac pregnant women had full term pregnancy. Also, the same percentage 86.7% of the women had conducted normal vaginal delivery & (18.3%) of the studied women had delivered babies with unhealthy Apgar score less than 7. Conclusion: The study showed that the studied cardiac pregnant women had unsatisfactory score levels of reported daily practices related to practicing exercise, foot care, nutrition, personnel hygiene, teeth care, as well as treatment and follow up of pregnancy, and only few percentages of the women had high total coping level toward psychological and social stressors. The study recommended that, carrying out educational program about cardiac disease during pregnancy in MCH centers and outpatient clinics to provide the women with necessary knowledge and daily practices. Regular check and follow up visits in the proper settings. The educational booklet should be distributed and implemented in the antenatal clinic, in the hospital and family health centers. Also further researches is needed to investigate the long –term effect of such educational intervention on improvement of the mothers and her babies.
[Amany Hamed Gad Mohamed and Nadia Ahmed Eladham. The Effect of Self-Care Practices on Pregnant Cardiac Women Outcome and Nursing Implications. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(4): 57-68]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040418.09.
Key word: Pregnant woman – Cardiac disease – Outcome – Daily practices.

10. Isolation, Identificatin And Antimicrobial Resistance Profile Of Salmonella Isolated From Chicken Cloacal Swab In Asossa And Bambasi Town, Benishangul Gumuz Regional State
*Asmamaw Aki Jano, yami bote and Gebrehiwot Woldemichael
Assosa Regional Veterinary Diagnostic, Surveillance, Monitoring and Study Laboratory, P.O. Box 326, Assosa, Ethiopia; 

Abstract: A cross - sectional study on isolation, identification and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella spp in Asossa and Bambasi town, Benishangul Gumuz Regional State were carried out from November 2017 to May 2018 with the objectives to estimate prevalence of salmonella species, associated risk factors and antimicrobial resistance pattern of the isolates. For this purpose, a total of 384 cloacal swab samples were collected and were subjected to various cultural and biochemical examinations. Among the 89 (23.2%) positive isolates, 7 fermented glucose and maltose and produced both acid and gas and did not ferment dulcitol which is positive for S. pullorum. 80(89.88%) of the positive isolates fermented glucose, maltose and dulcitol and produced acid, which are typical for S.gallinarum, two were S. typhimurium. Origin/sites/, age categories, body condition and sanitary/management condition were potential risk factors, which were statistically significant value for salmonella infection (p<0.000) whereas sex groups, floor type, previous treatment history and breed factors were not significant ( p>0.05). Of the 89 isolates, 2.24 % were motile (contributes to zoonoses) while (97.75%) were non-motile. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of all isolates were assessed against ten antimicrobials by disk diffusion technique; almost all isolates were resistant to one or more of the tested antimicrobials. Of all isolates, 95.6 % were multidrug resistant (MDR). 84.78%, 80.43%, 76.08%, 69.56%, 67.39%, 56.52% and 47.82% of the isolates were resistant to Tetracycline, Streptomycin, Kanamycine, Norfloxacin, Trimthoprim, Nalidixic Acid and Chloramphenicol respectively. However, the majority of the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and gentamycin, followed by sulphonamides. This is a significant threat to public health particularly to those who have direct or indirect contact to poultry and poultry products so that hygienic management of poultry and its products inorder to reduce the risk and selection of antimicrobials by antimicrobial sensitivity test were also suggested. 
[ Asmamaw Aki Jano, yami bote and Gebrehiwot Woldemichael. Isolation, Identificatin And Antimicrobial Resistance Profile Of Salmonella Isolated From Chicken Cloacal Swab In Asossa And Bambasi Town, Benishangul Gumuz Regional State. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(4): 69-91]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040418.10.
Keywords: Asossa, Bambasi, Cloacal swab, Isolates, drug resistant, poultry/ chicken, multidrug resistance

11. Evaluation of the Organoleptic Properties of Clarias gariepinus Smoked with Natural and Artificial Spices
Adibe, A. C., Okeke, P. A. and Arinze, O. M.
Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Nigeria.

Abstract: The effects of different spices on the organoleptic properties and shelf life of hygienically smoked dried Clarias gariepinus was evaluated with twelve (12) samples of live Clarias gariepinus of 1.440kg average weight. The samples were divided into three (3) portions as treatments A, B and C with four (4) replicates each. The fishes were cut into steaks of 480gm each and were assigned to the different treatments. The treatments were natural spices (Allium sativam, Zingiber officinale and Allium cepa), artificial seasonings (cooking cube and seasoning powder) while table salt served as control. The fishes were mixed thoroughly with the spices, allowed to stand for 30 minutes and smoked-dried in a smoking kiln. The sensory evaluation was conducted with questionnaires distributed to forty (40) evaluators of different genders. The questionnaires were structured based on a 9 point hedonic scale and the data generated were subject to descriptive and one-way analysis of variance. The results obtained revealed that the samples treated with natural spices gave the most desirable results in terms of taste, appearance, flavor and general acceptability. The results also showed that samples treated with natural spices gave longer shelf life.
[Adibe, A. C., Okeke, P. A. and Arinze, O. M. Evaluation of the Organoleptic Properties of Clarias gariepinus Smoked with Natural and Artificial Spices. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018;4(4): 92-96]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 11. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040418.11.
Keywords: Organoleptic properties; spices; smoking; shelf life

12. SOD and Free Radical Discovery with the Research Status and Future in Human Health
Huaijie Zhu1, Zlachevsky Vicky2, Yucui Zhu3
1Corresponding author E-mail:   Department of Pathology, Columbia University, New York, Jacksun Easy Biotech, New York, USA;  The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University;
2 University of Düsseldorf, Cologne, Heinrich Heine, Germany; 
3Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, USA

Abstract: In the 1830s, Mann and Keilin isolated a blue copper-based protein from bovine red blood cells and liver, and named this protein as blood copper protein. As the precursor of the discovery of SOD, they began to confirm the discovery and naming of SOD in the 1970s. With the process of discovery, the scavenging function of SOD on free radicals was gradually realized. With the development of the research on the scavenging function of SOD on free radicals, medical and biological scientists have come up with a new concept and discovery on the occurrence and understanding of aging and anti-aging in human health; 1) to recognize and find the REDOX signal, the understanding and establishment of the concept of oxidative antioxidant and anti-aging, which is a new understanding of the occurrence and development of human aging in medical science; 2) it is found that inflammation is also a concept of oxidative stress, which enables people to establish new therapeutic theories and concepts for many diseases related to inflammation; 3) understanding and discovery of the concept of physiological function of superoxide anions,recognizing that immune cells use free radicals to kill bacteria, the concept of free radical balance has been gradually confirmed. The above three aspects are the previously unknown concepts and understandings established in the discovery and research of SOD, laying a new research approach for the occurrence and development of many unknown diseases, the discovery of possible causes for many diseases with unknown causes makes it possible to find effective treatment schemes without thinking of treatment.
SOD may be used as an enzyme for the treatment and prevention of many diseases.        
[SOD and Free Radical Discovery with the Research Status and Future in Human Health].Biomedicine and Nursing 2018; 4(4): 97-101]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 12. doi:10.7537/marsbnj040418.12.
Keywords: SOD, superoxide dismutase, Anti-aging, free radicals, antioxidant1,Health,longevity.

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