ISSN 2379-8203

BIOMEDICINE & NURSING

Biomedicine and Nursing
Quarterly
Volume 5 - Issue 1 (Cumulated No. 16), March 25, 2019. (COVER

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1. The Effect of Self-Care Practices on Pregnant Cardiac Women Outcome and Nursing Implications
Amany Hamed Gad Mohamed1 and Nadia Ahmed Eladham2
1Obstetricsand Gynecological Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
2 Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty Of Nursing, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt
Emails: amanygad92@yahoo.com, ndia.adham5@gmail.com


Abstract: Cardiac diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among pregnant women in the developing world. Most women with cardiac disease can go through pregnancy and delivery safely, so long as they are adequately evaluated, counseled and received high quality care. This study aimed to identify the self-care practices performed by pregnant cardiac women in Zagazig university hospilal, to find out the birth outcome behind the self-care practices performed by pregnant cardiac women, and to conduct a mother classes, and provide a handout booklet titled standard self-care practices for educating cardiac pregnant women. Research design: An exploratory descriptive design was utilized in this study. Setting:The study was conducted in antenatal high risk ward & outpatient clinic in obstetric department, at Zagazig university hospital. Subjects: A total of 180 pregnant cardiac women was collected over one year period, starting from the 1st of January 2017 to 31 December 2017. Tools of data collection: A structured interview questionnaire form, it entailed three parts: Part 1: This includes: Socio-demographic characteristics, present pregnancy data, current pregnancy data regarding practices, current treatment regimen, current pregnancy investigations. Part 11: Self-Care Assessment (SCAS). Part 111: Assessing newborn and labor outcome. The study Results: indicates that (100.0%, 100.0%, 96.7%, 91.7%, 81.7%, 80.0%) respectively of the studied cardiac pregnant women had unsatisfactory score levels of reported practices related to practicing exercise, foot care, nutrition, personnel hygiene, teeth care, as well as treatment and follow up of pregnancy. Also, (56.7% & 63.3%) of the studied women had high level of psychological and social stressors and only 3.3% of the women had high total coping level. As regards outcome, 86.7% of the studied cardiac pregnant women had full term pregnancy. Also, the same percentage 86.7% of the women had conducted normal vaginal delivery & (18.3%) of the studied women had delivered babies with unhealthy Apgar score less than 7. Conclusion: The study showed that the studied cardiac pregnant women had unsatisfactory score levels of reported daily practices related to practicing exercise, foot care, nutrition, personnel hygiene, teeth care, as well as treatment and follow up of pregnancy, and only few percentages of the women had high total coping level toward psychological and social stressors. The study recommended that, carrying out educational program about cardiac disease during pregnancy in MCH centers and outpatient clinics to provide the women with necessary knowledge and daily practices. Regular check and follow up visits in the proper settings. The educational booklet should be distributed and implemented in the antenatal clinic, in the hospital and family health centers. Also further researches is needed to investigate the long –term effect of such educational intervention on improvement of the mothers and her babies.
[Amany Hamed Gad Mohamed and Nadia Ahmed Eladham. The Effect of Self-Care Practices on Pregnant Cardiac Women Outcome and Nursing Implications. Biomedicine and Nursing

2019;5(1): 1-12]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050119.01.
Key word: Pregnant woman – Cardiac disease – Outcome – Daily practices


2. Epidemiology, Economic and Public health significamce of Rift Valley Fever, Jimma, Ethiopia: A Review
Derara Birasa, Feyissa Benga, Tolasa Negasa
Jimma University, College of Agriculture and veterinary medicine, P.O. Box-307, Jimma, Ethiopia
Corresponding outhor: derarab2017@gmail.com


Abstract: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute vector-borne emerging viral zoonotic disease, adversely affecting domestic animals and humans. The disease is caused by Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV) of the genus Phlebovirus and the family Bunyaviridae. It was first reported in Rift valley of Kenya in 1930-31 with an experienced outbreak of abortion and death in exotic wool sheep and illness in humans. Nowadays, it has expanded to different geographical regions both inside and outside Africa, particularly sub-Saharan Africa and Arabian Peninsula. The disease is currently an economical concern in its endemicity because of trade restriction on importation and exportation of animals and animal products and the cost incurred to control and prevention measures. The desease is transmitted in domestic animals either through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly the Aedes and Culex genera or by direct contact with infected animal tissues, bodily fluids and fomites. In humans, transmission of the RVF is thought to be through arthropod vectors, aerosol, direct contact with infected animals or animal products. The disease adversely affects a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans, but Susceptibility varies among the species. Ecological factors, human behavioral and Climatic factors significantly effect vector distribution and RVF transmisions. Nowadays, the disease is not introduced to Ethiopia. However, the objectives of current review is focused on understanding the epidemiology, economic and public health significance of the disease and ready to take action in preventing the disease prior to its introduction to Ethiopia, since Ethiopia is bordered by some RVF endemic countries.
[Derara Birasa, Feyissa Benga, Tolasa Negasa. Epidemiology, Economic and Public health significamce of Rift Valley Fever, Jimma, Ethiopia: A Review. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(1): 13-25]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050119.02.

Keywords: Economic, Epidemiology, Public health significance, Rift Valley Fever, zoonoses


3.  A Review on the Effect of Immunocastration Against Gonadal Physiology and Boar Taint
Getinet Ayalew
Institute of Biotechnology, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia, P. O. Box. 196.
quine2003@gmail.com


Abstract: Castration is the disruption of testicular function, practiced for most economically important and pet animals; pigs, bovine, ovine, equine, caprine, canine and feline during puberty since ancient times. Gonadectomy practiced for centuries worldwide. Application of surgical castration with anesthesia/analgesia and temporary suppression of testicular function by vaccination are currently the most practical choices. Both surgical & chemical castration methods have drawback from the animal welfare point of view. Whereas the European Commission and the representatives of European farmers, scientist and veterinarians signed declaration to end surgical castration. For these reasons, immunocastration tested using peptides similar to GnRH, combined with proteins, to trigger antibodies that neutralize the function of GnRH. Australia & New Zealand use this method since 1998, Switzerland since January 2007 and Belgium since October 2010. Currently approved in over 60 countries. It is reported to be an advantageous alternative to improve aggressive behavior, smell and taste of meat and feed conversion efficiency. GnRH is composed of 10 amino acids which plays critical role in reproductive system by stimulating pituitary gland to release FSH/LH. These regulate gonadal functions, testes growth with spermatogenesis/steroidogenesis in Leydig cell. Androstenone and testosterone are sex hormones regulating reproductive physiology and sexual behaviors. Androstenone and skatole are the two compounds resulting taint odor of meat under the control of GnRH during puberty. These two compounds give urine-like and faecal-like odour. Skatole is a breakdown product of the amino acid tryptophan in large intestine by bacteria. Anti-GnRH antibodies produced by vaccination to neutralize GnRH. Deficiency of GnRH leads to castration. This novel technology needs further research on the mechanism and links with metabolism. Anti-GnRH has reproductive impacts on human being for self-injection. In general, in this review it has been attempted to give a highlight in understanding the mechanisms and benefits of immunocastration, boar taint prevention and the physiology in relation to its effect on the behavior, environment, meat production which have paramount importance in designing intervention methods in the control of undesired breeding, aggressiveness and taint in Boar. Finally, relevant recommendations are forwarded.

[Getinet Ayalew. A Review on the Effect of Immunocastration Against Gonadal Physiology and Boar Taint. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(1): 26-40]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org.3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050119.03.
Key Words: Anti-GnRH Vaccine, Castration, Immunocastration, Taint, Vaccination


4. Comparative Study of Academic Achievement of Adolescent Girls with Different Magnitudes of Motor Educability
Showkat Ahmad Chat1, Dr. Sudhir Rajpal2, Dr. Sharda Kashyap3

1 Research Scholar, Department of Physical Education, Dr. C V Raman University, Kargi Road Kota Bilaspur (C.G.)
2 Associate Professor, Department of Physical Education, Dr. C V Raman University, Kargi Road Kota Bilaspur (C.G.)
3 Senior Sports Officer, Govt. Bilasa Girls College, Bilaspur (C.G.)
Showkatchat55@gmail.com


Abstract: This study explored the association of motor educability with academic achievement of adolescent girls. This study was conducted on 250 adolescent girls chosen from Jammu and Kashmir. 50 adolescent girls each from 13 to 17 years ages were selected as sample. Modified version of Johnson Motor Educability Test was used to assess magnitude of motor educability among selected adolescent girls. Academic achievement of selected adolescent girls was evaluated on the basis of previous year examination grades/marks. Quartile method was employed to bifurcate adolescent girls into high, average and low level of motor educability. The results obtained through One Way ANOVA indicate that academic achievement of adolescent girls placed in high motor educability group was significantly superior as compared to adolescent girls placed in average and low level of motor educability. The results are discussed in the light of established theories on motor skill and cognition.
[Chat Showkat, R. Sudhir, K Sharda. Comparative Study of Academic Achievement of Adolescent Girls with Different Magnitudes of Motor Educability. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(1): 41-43]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050119.04.
Keywords:  Motor educability; adolescent girls; academic achievement


5. Production of Ethanol from Lantana camara L. Leaves Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Sara Getachew Amenu*, Meseret Chimdessa (PhD) and Manikandan Muthuswamy (PhD)
Haramaya University, ETHIOPIA. sarahgetachew22@gmail.com


A Thesis Submitted to the School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Postgraduate Program Directorate, Haramaya University. In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Biotechnology


Abstract: Production of bio-ethanol from lignocellulose materials is an alternative means of fulfilling the demand for fuel. Lantana camara is an invasive weed, which can serve as a source of lignocellulose material for bioethanol production. This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating bio-ethanol production from leaves of L.camara using yeast (Saccharomyces cescerevisiae) in batch fermentation. L.camara leaves in different concentrations (10g, 20g, 30g and 40g) pre-treated with dilute sulfuric acid or untreated and supplemented with 0.5 or 1% of yeast as inoculums were treatments. Ethanol production, amount of reducing sugar and cell density were parameters measured at 4th day interval starting from incubation period. Results showed that Ethanol production, amount of reducing sugar and cell density were parameters measured at 4th day interval starting from incubation period. Results showed that reducing sugar was observed starting from the 4th day of fermentation, increase but Concomitant with ethanol production, cell density were observed in the same pattern its amount peaked on the 8th day of fermentation, and declined afterwards Compared to untreated substrates, acid pre-treated substrates yielded more bio-ethanol. Overall, this study showed that acid pre-treatment, inoculum concentration, fermentation period and substrate concentration affect the amount of bio-ethanol production.
[Sara Getachew Amenu, Meseret Chimdessa (PhD) and Manikandan Muthuswamy (PhD). Production of Ethanol fromLantana camara L. Leaves Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(1): 44-52]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050119.05.
Keyword: Bio-ethanol, distillation, fermentation, Lantana camara, pre-treatment, Saccharomyces cerevisiae


6. EPA-Mediated Up-regulation of PON2 Gene in The Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Mohammad Hassan Golzari1, Seyde Ali Keshavarz2, Mahmoud Djalali3
1MSc, Ph.D, Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Ph.D, Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3Ph.D. DSC, Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Phone: 00989121327189

Abstract: Background: Paraoxonase 2 acts as an antioxidant enzyme at the cellular level, and because of its antioxidant and lactonase activities have the protective role against the development of atherosclerosis. EPA has the antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antithrombogenic, and antiarteriosclerotic properties. Therefore, we investigated the influence of the supplementation of EPA on the gene expression of PON2 in the PBMC of type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: This study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Thirty six patients with type 2 diabetes were given written; informed consent, randomly were classified into 2 groups. They were supplemented with 2 g/day of the softgels of EPA or placebo. At the start and the end of the intervention, were given blood sample for measurement of the genes expression of PON2 and β-actin, and the serum levels of lipids, FBS and HbA1c. Results: Patients supplemented with EPA showed a significant increase in the gene expression of PON2 than β-actin gene. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding any demographic, clinical or biochemical data, total energy intake, and macronutrient intake at the baseline, and during the intervention, except for a significant increase of protein intake and the levels of HbA1cin the placebo group, and a significant increase of HDL-c, as well as a slight reduce of total cholesterol, LDL-c, TG and FBS in the supplement group. Conclusions: We conclude that EPA is atheroprotective via the upregulation of PON2 at the gene level.
[Mohammad Hassan Golzari, Seyde Ali Keshavarz, Mahmoud Djalali. EPA-Mediated Up-regulation of PON2 Gene in The Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(1): 53-62]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050119.06.
Key Words: Eicosapentaenoic acid, Paraoxonase 2, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


7. Neutrophil CD64 as a diagnostic marker in neonatal sepsis
Nashwa Mamdouh Samra1; Mohamad Ezzat Al Ghwass1; Sayed Ali Amin1; Fadwa Abd El Reheem Mohammad 2 and Shaimaa Madkour Abd El-wahed1.
1 Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Egypt.
2 Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Egypt.


Abstract: Background: Sepsis in neonates hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit is a global problem and is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. Although treatment of sepsis has evolved in the last decades with newer therapeutic options, little has changed to improve diagnosis or therapeutic monitoring. Objective: This case control study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utilities of neutrophil CD64 (nCD64) expression for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.Subjects and methods: The study was performed on 41 neonates with evidence of sepsis admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Fayoum University Hospitals as a case group and 19 healthy neonates as a control group. Detailed history and meticulous general & systemic examinations were done. Complete blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP), blood culture and CD64 index were done simultaneously at time of evaluation. Neutrophil CD64 was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Neutrophil CD64% showed moderate sensitivity (70.7%) and moderate specificity (73.7%) with cut off value 17.8 in diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Conclusion: There was a significant difference in the percentage of neutrophils expressing CD64 between the case and control groups so nCD64 can be considered a useful marker in diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

[Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Egypt. Neutrophil CD64 as a diagnostic marker in neonatal sepsis. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(1): 63-69]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online).http://www.nbmedicine.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050119.07.
Key words: neonatal sepsis, neutrophils, CD64, Flow cytometry


8. Epidemiology, Economic and Public health significance of Rift Valley Fever, Jimma, Ethiopia: A Review
Derara Birasa, Feyissa Benga, Tolasa Negasa
Jimma University, College of Agriculture and veterinary medicine, P.O.Box-307, Jimma, Ethiopia
Corresponding outhor: derarab2017@gmail.com


Abstract: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute vector-borne emerging viral zoonotic disease, adversely affecting domestic animals and humans. The disease is caused by Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV) of the genus Phlebovirus and the family Bunyaviridae. It was first reported in Rift valley of Kenya in 1930-31 with an experienced outbreak of abortion and death in exotic wool sheep and illness in humans. Nowadays, it has expanded to different geographical regions both inside and outside Africa, particularly sub-Saharan Africa and Arabian Peninsula. The disease is currently an economical concern in its endemicity because of trade restriction on importation and exportation of animals and animal products and the cost incurred to control and prevention measures. The desease is transmitted in domestic animals either through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly the Aedes and Culex genera or by direct contact with infected animal tissues, bodily fluids and fomites. In humans, transmission of the RVF is thought to be through arthropod vectors, aerosol, direct contact with infected animals or animal products. The disease adversely affects a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans, but Susceptibility varies among the species. Ecological factors, human behavioral and Climatic factors significantly effect vector distribution and RVF transmisions. Nowadays, the disease is not introduced to Ethiopia. However, the objectives of current review is focused on understanding the epidemiology, economic and public health significance of the disease and ready to take action in preventing the disease prior to its introduction to Ethiopia, since Ethiopia is bordered by some RVF endemic countries.
[Derara Birasa, Feyissa Benga, Tolasa Negasa. Epidemiology, Economic and Public health significamce of Rift Valley Fever, Jimma, Ethiopia: A Review. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(1): 70-81]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050119.08.
Keywords: Economic, Epidemiology, Public health significance, Rift Valley Fever, zoonoses


9. Review On Shiga Toxin Escherichia Coli In Milk And Their Public Impacts
Jimma, Ethiopia
Diriba Oljira, Mekonnen Addis, Derara Birasa
Jimma University, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, P.O.Box-307, Jimma, Ethiopia
Corresponding Author: dirolj@gmail.com


Abstract: Milk is an important source of nutrients to human and animals, as it is considered as best, ideal and complete food for all age groups. However, in spite of being so, milk can also serve as a potential vehicle for transmission of some disease under certain circumstances. Because of their unique composition and properties, this is excellent growth media for many pathogenic microorganisms. Milk borne transmission of Shiga Toxin producing Escherichia coli has raised considerable concern due to recent outbreaks worldwide and poses a threat to public health. As ruminant are health carriers of STEC and most dairy products may provide these bacteria with favorable conditions for their growth, milk and dairy products are a potential source of STEC. Among those Escherichia coli O157:H7 are the most frequent potential pathogens associated with milk or dairy products in many countries and are therefore the main microbiological hazards linked to dairy products. Escherichia coli are versatile species encompassing both commensals of the digestive tracts of many vertebrates, including humans, and pathogenic strains causing various intra and extra intestinal infections. Pathogenic strains of this organism are distinguished from normal flora by their possession of virulence factors such as exotoxins. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is associated with life threatening diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. This review summarizes the scientific information about Shiga Toxin producing Escherichia colirelated to foodborne pathogens in dairy products and highlights the role of milk for the transmission and associated public health impacts.
[Jimma, Ethiopia. Review On Shiga Toxin Escherichia Coli In Milk And Their Public Impacts. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(1): 82-94]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 9.doi:10.7537/marsbnj050119.09.
Key words: Milk, Public health, Shiga Toxin Escherichia Coli


10. Study On Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Survey To Wards Rabies In Amuru Districts Of Horo Guduru Wollega Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

Jimma, Ethiopia
Diriba Oljira, Mekonnen Addis, Belay Wakjira
Jimma University, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, P.O.Box-307, Jimma, Ethiopia
Corresponding Author: dirolj@gmail.com


Abstract: This study was conducted in and around Amuru district, Horro Guduru Wollega zone, Oromia, West Ethiopia from April, 2018 to December, 2018 to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the community on rabies and associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study design and simple random sampling procedures were employed to select peasant association households for this study. Kebeles were selected using lottery method from list of kebeles in each administrative area, followed by selection of households from each kebeles using systematic random sampling method. The data were obtained from 384 households through face to face interview using pretested and structured questionnaires, which involves both close and open ended questions. Out of the 384 respondents interviewed, 53.9% of them were males and 46.1% females. The majority of the respondents 50.5% were protestant followed by Orthodox 20.3%. All of the respondents indicated that they had previously heard about rabies. Almost half of the study participants 62% had good level of KAP perception to rabies. There was strong association between KAP scores and age (x2 =8.001, p<0.05); educational level (x2=11.409, p<0.05) and occupation (x2 =14.307, p<0.05). Generally these findings indicate that the Amuru community has good knowledge about rabies. But it need for educational outreach in and around Amuru district to raise accurate knowledge on mode of transmission, symptoms and appropriate prevention and treatment measures.
[Jimma, Ethiopia. Study On Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Survey To Wards Rabies In Amuru Districts Of Horo Guduru Wollega Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(1): 95-110]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050119.10.

Keywords: Attitude, Community, Knowledge, Practice, Rabies


11. Students’ Expectation and Satisfaction as a Quality Management towards Nursing Institutions
Zohaib Hassan1, Aftab Ahmed2, Parveen Sardar3

1. Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan 2. Peoples Nursing School Liaquat University of Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan

3. Jamshoro College of Nursing Jamshoro, Pakistan

Abstract: Objective: The study was conducted to examine the Students’ Expectation and Satisfaction as a QualityManagement towards Nursing Institutions. Methodology: The Researcher selected 150 participants from 450 populations using Systematic Random Sampling with the help of questionnaire in three Nursing Institutions. Each item was statistically analyzed by using SPSS v. 22 and Microsoft Excel. Results and Conclusion: Present Research indicates students are satisfied as Quality Management towards Three Nursing Institutions; School of Nursing Walli Bhai Rajputana Hyderabad, School of Nursing Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad and Jamshoro College of Nursing Jamshoro.
[Hassan Z, Ahmed A, Sardar P. Students’ Expectation and Satisfaction as a Quality Management towards Nursing Institutions. Biomedicine and Nursing 2018; 5 (4):1-4]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online).http://www.nbmedicine.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050119.11.

Keywords: Expectation towards Nursing Institution, Nursing as Quality Management, Students expectation.


12. The function and mechanism of SOD in human health

Huaijie Zhu1, Zlachevsky Vicky2, Yucui Zhu3
1Corresponding author E-mail: jacksun689@gmail.com.   Department of Pathology, Columbia University, New York, Jacksun Easy Biotech, New York, USA. The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University;
2 University of Düsseldorf, Cologne, Heinrich Heine, Germany;

3Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, USA


Abstract: In human history, many diseases in human life affect the health and longevity of human beings through some unknown factors. Since the separation of superoxide dismutase from

bovine red blood cells for the first time in 1938, McCord et al. rediscovered this protein in 1969 and officially named it as superoxide dismutase( EC1.15.1.1, SOD),That is, after the advent of SOD, many questions about human health and longevity have been answered, which has greatly improved human health and longevity. The key to its improvement is to understand that free radical is an important pathogenic factor in the process of human life, and SOD free radical scavenger is the patron saint of maintaining health and prolonging life. In this paper, the pathogenesis of free radicals and how SOD scavenges free radicals are summarized and described.
[The function and mechanism of SOD in human health].Biomedicine and Nursing 2019; 5(1): 115-118]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050119.12.

Keywords: SOD, superoxide dismutase, Anti-aging, free radicals, antioxidant1,Health,longevity,Tumors, heart disease, atherosclerosis, reperfusion injury.


13. Systematic Review on Equine Gastric Ulceration: Predisposing Factor, Epidemiology and Treatment
Getinet Ayalew1, Maradona Birhanu2, Melesse Gebrie3
1.Dawro-Tarcha Campus, Wolaita Sodo University, Tarcha, Ethiopia, P. O. Box. 138.
2. Department of animal health, Alage Agricultural TVET College, Ministry of Agriculture, Ethiopia
3. Department of Biomedical, School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
 quine2003@gmail.com

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiology, clinical sign, diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of equine gastric ulceration. In many countries, endoscope examination of equine gastric ulceration has made a significant impact of gastric ulceration in equine. However, in same this countries technique have not been used as effective and improved disease control strategy on bases of disease control technique. The studies of the disease in naturally diseased animal of equine gastric ulceration have provided valuable information; detail knowledge can also be gained through studies of risk factors. The pathogenesis of equine gastric ulceration has been evolved by destructive effect of risk factors for effect of HCl & pepsin, and defensive effects of protective factors, such as mucosal layer& bicarbonate product of stomach. Experimental studies have been adapted to study risk factor for equine gastric ulceration, the mechanisms of risk factors and natural disease pathogenesis. In general, in this review it has been attempted to give a highlight in understanding mechanisms of risk factors and pathogenesis of disease in relation to its effect on the health of host, which have paramount importance in designing intervention methods in the control of equine gastric ulceration in equine. Finally, relevant recommendations are forwarded.  [Getinet A, Maradona B, Melesse G. Systematic Review on Equine Gastric Ulceration: Predisposing Factor, Epidemiology and Treatment. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019; 5 (1):119-126]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050119.13.

Keywords: Equine; Equine Gastric Ulceration; Ulceration; Treatment.


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