ISSN 2379-8203

BIOMEDICINE & NURSING

Biomedicine and Nursing
Quarterly
Volume 5 - Issue 2 (Cumulated No. 17), June 25, 2019. (COVER

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1. A Review on the Effect of Immunocastration Against Gonadal Physiology and Boar Taint
Getinet Ayalew
Institute of Biotechnology, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia, P. O. Box. 196.
quine2003@gmail.com

Abstract: Castration is the disruption of testicular function, practiced for most economically important and pet animals; pigs, bovine, ovine, equine, caprine, canine and feline during puberty since ancient times. Gonadectomy practiced for centuries worldwide. Application of surgical castration with anesthesia/analgesia and temporary suppression of testicular function by vaccination are currently the most practical choices. Both surgical & chemical castration methods have drawback from the animal welfare point of view. Whereas the European Commission and the representatives of European farmers, scientist and veterinarians signed declaration to end surgical castration. For these reasons, immunocastration tested using peptides similar to GnRH, combined with proteins, to trigger antibodies that neutralize the function of GnRH. Australia & New Zealand use this method since 1998, Switzerland since January 2007 and Belgium since October 2010. Currently approved in over 60 countries. It is reported to be an advantageous alternative to improve aggressive behavior, smell and taste of meat and feed conversion efficiency. GnRH is composed of 10 amino acids which plays critical role in reproductive system by stimulating pituitary gland to release FSH/LH. These regulate gonadal functions, testes growth with spermatogenesis/steroidogenesis in Leydig cell. Androstenone and testosterone are sex hormones regulating reproductive physiology and sexual behaviors. Androstenone and skatole are the two compounds resulting taint odor of meat under the control of GnRH during puberty. These two compounds give urine-like and faecal-like odour. Skatole is a breakdown product of the amino acid tryptophan in large intestine by bacteria. Anti-GnRH antibodies produced by vaccination to neutralize GnRH. Deficiency of GnRH leads to castration. This novel technology needs further research on the mechanism and links with metabolism. Anti-GnRH has reproductive impacts on human being for self-injection. In general, in this review it has been attempted to give a highlight in understanding the mechanisms and benefits of immunocastration, boar taint prevention and the physiology in relation to its effect on the behavior, environment, meat production which have paramount importance in designing intervention methods in the control of undesired breeding, aggressiveness and taint in Boar. Finally, relevant recommendations are forwarded.
[Getinet Ayalew. A Review on the Effect of Immunocastration Against Gonadal Physiology and Boar Taint.

Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(2): 1-14]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050219.01.
Key Words: Anti-GnRH Vaccine, Castration, Immunocastration, Taint, Vaccination


2. Molecular Characterization and Genetic Diversity of Pennisetum Spp
Animashaun D.A and Favour M.O
University of Ilorin, Department of Plant Biology Kwara State


Abstract: The genus Pennisetum is one of the exotic grass family with species endowned with exquisite characters that are of great economic importance to man and animals. Despite the fodder and forage quality, drought tolerance, high quantity of protein, medicinal values, aesthetic values and other unique characteristics its species possess, there has been great negligence on some of its species which may be useful in hybridization programme and crop improvement and hence, there is a need to exploit genetic diversity of this genus. Genetic diversity of plant species now serves as a panacea to the changing environmental conditions affecting plants growth and is the basis for survival and adaptation; making it possible to continue advancing adaptive processes on which evolutionary success and to some extent human survival depends. Genetic diversity of eleven Pennisetum genotypes was carried out on the extracted DNA using polymerase chain reaction amplification with fourteen different RAPD primers to assess the degree of polymorphisms. The DNA fragments that were amplified showed reproducibly polymorphism among the species ranging from 55.60% - 100% showing that the markers used are effective. The dendrogram and neighbor-joining diagram obtained demonstrate clearly that genetic diversity exists among the eleven species studied and revealed the possibilities of a hybrid from P.pupureum var. 11. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that in most instances similarity in the RAPD-PCR banding patterns reflected relationship due to the origin.
[Animashaun D.A and Favour M. Molecular Characterization and Genetic Diversity of Pennisetum Spp. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(2): 15-25]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050219.02.
Key words: Molecular Characterization, genetic diversity, RAPD markers, Pennisetum Spp


3. Systematic Review on Equine Gastric Ulceration: Predisposing Factor, Epidemiology and Treatment
Getinet Ayalew1, Maradona Birhanu2, Melesse Gebrie3
1.Dawro-Tarcha Campus, Wolaita Sodo University, Tarcha, Ethiopia, P. O. Box. 138.
2. Department of animal health, Alage Agricultural TVET College, Ministry of Agriculture, Ethiopia
3. Department of Biomedical, School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia

quine2003@gmail.com

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiology, clinical sign, diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of equine gastric ulceration. In many countries, endoscope examination of equine gastric ulceration has made a significant impact of gastric ulceration in equine. However, in same this countries technique have not been used as effective and improved disease control strategy on bases of disease control technique. The studies of the disease in naturally diseased animal of equine gastric ulceration have provided valuable information; detail knowledge can also be gained through studies of risk factors. The pathogenesis of equine gastric ulceration has been evolved by destructive effect of risk factors for effect of HCl & pepsin, and defensive effects of protective factors, such as mucosal layer & bicarbonate product of stomach. Experimental studies have been adapted to study risk factor for equine gastric ulceration, the mechanisms of risk factors and natural disease pathogenesis. In general, in this review it has been attempted to give a highlight in understanding mechanisms of risk factors and pathogenesis of disease in relation to its effect on the health of host, which have paramount importance in designing intervention methods in the control of equine gastric ulceration in equine. Finally, relevant recommendations are forwarded. [Getinet A, Maradona B, Melesse G. Systematic Review on Equine Gastric Ulceration: Predisposing Factor, Epidemiology and Treatment. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(2): 26-32]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050219.03.
Keywords: Equine; Equine Gastric Ulceration; Ulceration; Treatment.


4. Evaluation of the Use vs. Non Use of Urinary Bladder Catheter during Caesarean Delivery: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Dr. Emad Maarouf Abdellatef, Dr. Abdallah Khalel Ahmed and Sameh Ezzat Nasr Jahen
Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine - Al -Azhar University, Egypt


Abstract: Urinary bladder catheterization is an important maneuver either if it is done in surgery or for another need (e.g. urine retention or need of monitoring of urine output). The urinary bladder is sterile by its nature as urine is a sterile fluid except in cases of urinary tract. In this context, given the need to further evaluate the pragmatic use of indwelling catheters in hemodynamically stable women undergoing Caesarean delivery, by performing a prospective, randomized controlled trial (RCT). This study was done to investigate prospectively the effects of indwelling urinary catheter placement during Caesarean delivery, trying to avoid or minimize the possibility of urinary tract infection and discomfort offering a better quality of life for those patients. This randomized controlled trial was performed at the maternity wards of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Helwan General Hospital from September2018 to March2019. A total of 100 patients, fulfilling the inclusion criteria, were enrolled in this study. They were allocated randomly into one of two groups (1 and 2). All women were encouraged to void before being taken to operating theatre table. In Group 2 (n=50), women were routinely catheterized. The catheter was removed approximately 6-8 hours after surgery whereas, in group 1 (n=50), Caesarean section was carried out without urethral catheterization. Procedure was instituted in the standard manner via modified Pfannenstielincision. In all cases, transverse lower uterine segment incision was performed. In the recovery room patients were monitored closely. All participants in group 1 were instructed to void upon feeling of the urge. All women were investigated for urinary tract infection by Midstream sample of urine (MSU) for analysis and culture (just before discharge). Outcome of interest included intraoperative injury to bladder, other intra operative complications and postoperative complications. Postoperative complications were categorized into urinary retention, incidence of atony of uterus, and urinary tract infection. There is no significant difference between cases with and without catheter regarding anthropometric measure, gestational age, operation time and causes of Caesarean section anatomy of the uterus (p > 0.05). No bladder injuries were reported in either group. The mean value of pus cells in urine is significantly higher among patients with catheter than patients without catheter (p< 0.001). The results of this trial demonstrate that routine urinary catheterization during Caesarean delivery in hemodynamically stablewomen is unwarranted. The un catheterized group demonstrated a reduction in incidence of UTI, shorter hospital stay, potentially less cost with more patient satisfaction without increasing intraoperative difficulties.
[Emad Maarouf Abdellatef, Abdallah Khalel Ahmed and Sameh Ezzat Nasr Jahen. Evaluation of the Use vs. Non Use of Urinary Bladder Catheter during Caesarean Delivery: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(2):33-40]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050219.03.
Keywords: Urinary Bladder Catheter, Caesarean Deliveryl.


5. Emergency Nurses 'performance Regarding Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: An Educational Intervention
Eman Elsayed Hussein, Naglaa Abd EL Kareem Moghazy, Aida Ahmed Mohamed
Lecturer of Medical Surgical Nursing, Zagazig University, Egypt.
Correspondence: Eman Elsayed Hussein, (Hussein., E., E. ), lecturer of Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Egypt e-Mail:

eman.ehab5555@gmail.com
e-mail: eman.ehab5555@gmail.com

Abstract: Background: Practicing emergency nurse concerning cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was of great importance to suitable care like contingency case lives. Nurses are generally the first to limit the necessity for and being cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on patients with cardiopulmonary arrest in the hospital setting. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been observed to decrease in-hospital deaths when to be given from adequately trained health care professionals. Aim of the current research was to estimate the influence of an educational involvement on emergency nurse’ achievement concerning cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A quasi-experimental design was done in this study. This research was carried out at the Emergency Department in an accidental hospital affiliated at Zagazig University Hospitals. Subjects: included an appropriate sample from a total of 70 contingency nurses. Tools: Two tools were utilized for information collection. Interviewing questionnaire sheet was concerning with nursing personnel properties and awareness relationship with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and performance checklist sheet. From the results of this research that there was a great statistical variation among information and practical scores of a contingency nurse at pre and post-intervention. The study summarized that educational intervention has greatly become better emergency nurses’ performance regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
[Eman Elsayed Hussein, Naglaa Abd EL Kareem Moghazy, Aida Ahmed Mohamed. Emergency Nurses 'performance Regarding Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: An Educational Intervention. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(2): 41-50].ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050219.05.
Keywords: Emergency, Educational intervention, performance, Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), Nursing.


6. Quality of Work Life and Its Effects on Registered Nurses' Turnover Intention in Egyptian and Philippines University Hospitals
Lamiaa Ismail Keshk1, Mervat E. A. El Dahshan2, Lorna Espiritu Vallar3
1Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Helwan University, Egypt.
2Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Menoufia University, Egypt.
3Nursing Administration Department, San Pedro College, Philippines
Email: Keshk.lamiaa@yahoo.com

Abstract: Nurse turnover has a negative effect on the capability to encounter client requirements and deliver a great quality of care, which may generate more stress on other staff owing to increased workloads. Also, it can lead to dangerous deviations in the performance of nurses towards their jobs producing less job satisfaction and productivity, and leaving the institution. Therefore, this study aimed to examine Quality of Work Life and its effects on registered nurses' turnover intention in Egyptian and Philippines university hospitals. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive correlational research design was used. This study was conducted at Menoufia university hospital in Shebin El-Kom City, Egypt. Dr. Amado P.  Diaz Provincial university  hospital in Philippines. The study sample was 100 nurses worked in the Egyptian hospital and 195 nurses worked in Philippines hospital. Two instruments were used in the current study; Brooks’ Survey of Quality of Nursing Work Life and The Anticipated Turnover Scale (ATS). Results: The study results showed that the majority of staff nurses were dissatisfied with all components regarding quality work life in both Philippines and Egyptian hospitals with highly statistically significance difference except the items of work life home, Work design and Work context coworker were with no statistically significance difference. It indicated strongly negative correlation between work life, work design, work world and turnover intention in Egyptian hospital. Also, it showed negative correlation between work life, work world and turnover intention in Philippines hospital. While, it reflected positive correlation of work context and turnover in both Egyptian and Philippines hospital. Recommendation: Hospital administrators can keep suitable activities to develop quality of nursing work life and decrease nurses’ turnover. Also, constructing and retaining a healthier work life for nurses are so vital to advance their job agreement, decrease turnover, and improve efficiency and nursing care products.
[Lamiaa Ismail Keshk, Mervat E. A. El Dahshan, Lorna Espiritu Valla. Quality of Work Life and Its Effects on Registered Nurses' Turnover Intention in Egyptian and Philippines University Hospitals. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(2): 51-64]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050219.06.
Keywords: Nurse, Quality of work life (QWL), Turnover Intention


7. Comparative Study: Effect of two Alternative Therapies in Management of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting After Surgery
Hend Abdel Monem Eid Elshnawie
Faculty of Nursing, Department of Medical & Surgical Nursing, College of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt e.mail: e.hendabdelmonem@yahoo.com


Abstract: Now day the world have shed light on the uses of alternative treatment in managing health problems. It can used in management of post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) during their modulation of having an internal cause opioid neuropeptides and neurokinin ligands. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is remains a significant, troublesome post anesthetic problem which affecting up to 80% of patients who undergo general and regional anesthesia and within 24 hours of surgery. As result, it delay patient recovery, unanticipated hospital admission, limiting factor in early discharge after ambulatory surgery. Therefore, It increases health care costs and lead to patient dissatisfaction (1). Antiemetic's are only partially effective way in managing the PONV but it can cause adverse effects, like sedation. Furthermore, Even with a new generation of anesthetic drugs and antiemetic, a high number of patients are affected by PONV. It has a multifactor etiology, but there are ways to reduce its occurrence. The greatest health care occupational would concur that better PONV therapy should be cost-influential, self-administered, and reason little to no side influences. One such therapy pattern that appears to have all of this advantage is Alternative therapies as aromatherapy and acupressure have been recommended for the administration of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). It is recognized that this treatment is cheap, non-invasive and usually has the least levels of adverse influences Although it is not a traditionally recognized method, stimulation of acupressure points, specifically P6, has been identified as a potentially effective method of reducing PONV (2,3,4). Aim of this research: The target of this research is to investigate the influence of two alternative therapies aroma therapy using (pepper mint oil inhalation) and PC6 acupressure on management of post-operative nausea and vomiting after surgery Setting: the study was conducted in the recovery rooms of general surgeries at Alexandria Main University Hospital. Subjects: They comprised a convenience sample of 66 patients who undergoing general surgeries. Patient was classified into three groups. study and control groups (n=22 in each group). Tool: One tool was used for data collection to collect the necessary data related to the effect of oil pepper mint oil, acupressure on management of post-operative nausea and vomiting after surgeries. the tool consist of assessment and observational form and it were designed by the researcher based on the review of literature. The tool included four parts: Demographic/Medical Data, Risk factors for PONV, Nausea and vomiting events data and finally Patient satisfaction. Results: the results of the current study showed the nausea mean score for patients who managed by peppermint oil and acupressure groups. after 30 minutes of the post-intervention it was observed that the mean score of nausea for patient inhaled peppermint oils group are 3.86±2.3and 3.09 ± 2.02 in acupressure group which were statistically significant p = 0.003 in comparing the two groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that using of alternative therapies pepper mint oil is effective in management postoperative nausea and vomiting while as using pepper mint oil is more effective than acupressure in management postoperative nausea and vomiting after surgeries. Recommendations: using peppermint oil or acupressure in management of post-operative nausea and vomiting after all surgeries than pharmacological treatment, Continuing education for nursing staff through in-services training program to improve their knowledge and skills about the alternative therapies other than administering prescribed medication.
[Hend Abdel Monem Eid Elshnawie. Comparative Study: Effect of two Alternative Therapies in Management of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting After Surgery. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(2): 65-82]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050219.07.
Keywords Pepper mint oil inhalation, acupressure, post-operative nausea and vomiting


8. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors among Saudis Patients at Mohail Asser Hospital
Fathia Attia Mohammed Attia and Elham Hamad Mohamed Hamad
Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Facility of Nursing, Zigzag University, Egypt
drelhamhamad57@gmail.com


Abstract: An Introduction: Risk factor administration is significant in keeping away from life-threatening a difficulty and preventing new-onset of diabetes, throughout identified and counselee the high risk groups before suffering from diabetes. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is steadily elevating in Saudi Arabia may be due to people growth, aging, development, elevating occurrence of obesity and physical dormancy. Screening must be previously detection and or additional heavy therapy of persons with asymptomatic will be resulting in improved clinical outcomes. Aims were to: Assess the risk factors for type 2 diabetes, determine which risk can be managed and estimate the probability of type 2 diabetes occurrence in study subjects. Research design: A cross sectional design was followed. Subjects and sitting: 150 patients from Mohail Asser Hospital were randomly selected. Tool of data collection: a structured questionnaire sheet of a German Diabetes Risk Score was adopted. Results: The result of our study reveals that there were high risk factors among participant regarding type 2 DM. the highest risk factors were obesity, consumption of meat, coffee, whole grain bread, physical inactivity, hypertension as well as family history. There was a high risk among participant to suffer from type 2DM in the next 5 years. Based on these result we recommended that improve community alertness regarding type 2 DM modifiable risk factors must be conducted by, audiovisuals media e.g. an illustrated pamphlet, videos, and healthy day workshop, and a mass screening for early detection and take actions from person and governorate must be conduct.
[Fathia Attia Mohammed Attia and Elham Hamad Mohamed Hamad. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors among Saudis Patients at Mohail Asser Hospital. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(2):83-91]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050219.08.
Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes -Saudi Arabia - Risk Factors - Screening -Diabetes risk scores


9. Systematic Review on Equine Gastric Ulceration: Predisposing Factor, Epidemiology and Treatment
Getinet Ayalew1, Maradona Birhanu2, Melesse Gebrie3
1. Dawro-Tarcha Campus, Wolaita Sodo University, Tarcha, Ethiopia, P. O. Box. 138.
2. Department of animal health, Alage Agricultural TVET College, Ministry of Agriculture, Ethiopia
3. Department of Biomedical, School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
quine2003@gmail.com


Abstract: The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiology, clinical sign, diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of equine gastric ulceration. In many countries, endoscope examination of equine gastric ulceration has made a significant impact of gastric ulceration in equine. However, in same this countries technique have not been used as effective and improved disease control strategy on bases of disease control technique. The studies of the disease in naturally diseased animal of equine gastric ulceration have provided valuable information; detail knowledge can also be gained through studies of risk factors. The pathogenesis of equine gastric ulceration has been evolved by destructive effect of risk factors for effect of HCl & pepsin, and defensive effects of protective factors, such as mucosal layer & bicarbonate product of stomach. Experimental studies have been adapted to study risk factor for equine gastric ulceration, the mechanisms of risk factors and natural disease pathogenesis. In general, in this review it has been attempted to give a highlight in understanding mechanisms of risk factors and pathogenesis of disease in relation to its effect on the health of host, which have paramount importance in designing intervention methods in the control of equine gastric ulceration in equine. Finally, relevant recommendations are forwarded. [Getinet A, Maradona B, Melesse G. Systematic Review on Equine Gastric Ulceration: Predisposing Factor, Epidemiology and Treatment. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(2): 92-98]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050219.09.
Keywords: Equine; Equine Gastric Ulceration; Ulceration; Treatment


10. Review on Veterinary Important Haemophilus Bacteria

Asressa Yeneneh, Solomon Lulie
Department of Micro biology, College of Veterinary Medicine and animal science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia P.O Box: 196
solomonlulie@gmail.com


Abstract: Haemophilus species are small, gram negative, non-spore forming, pleomorphic and facultative anaerobes which do not grow on MacConkey agar. Therefore, the objective of this paper is overview general characteristics of the genus haemophilus. They are fastidious bacteria which require one or both of the growth factors found in blood. These factors were originally referred to as X and V factors and later identified as haemin and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide respectively. Haemophilus paragallinarum, Haemophilus parasuis and Haemophilus somnus are species of veterinary importance. They are commensals or parasites of the mucous membranes of animals, most commonly of the upper respiratory and lower genitaltracts. Finally, it can be concluded that since all members of the genus Haemophilus have the characteristics of requiring growth factors in common, X and V factor requirement tests are among identification techniques of haemophilus species.
[Yeneneh A, Lulie S. Review on Veterinary Important Haemophilus bacteria. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(2): 99-103]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050219.10.
Keyword: Growth factors, Haemophilus, Identification, Isolation, Veterinary importance


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