ISSN 2379-8203


Biomedicine and Nursing
Volume 5 - Issue 3 (Cumulated No. 18), September 25, 2019. (COVER)  

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1. The High Fidelity Simulation Training and Its Impact on Nursing Students’ Satisfaction, Self Confidence and Their Performance in Pediatric Real Situation: A Comparative Study
Lamiaa Ismail Keshk¹, Samah El Awady², Jihan Mahmoud Farrag3
1 Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Helwan University, Egypt
2Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Zigzag University, Egypt
3Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University, Egypt

Abstract: Improvement of safe nursing training in entry-level nursing learners needs special concern from nurse professors. High-fidelity simulation (HFS) has been planned as a new, additional education-learning strategy to develop the transfer of learner self-confidence and proficiency to the practical nursing setting. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to examine the High-Fidelity Simulation Training and its impact on nursing students’ satisfaction, self -confidence and their performance in pediatric real situation. Methods: A quasi experimental design was used in carrying out the present study. The purposive sample was conducted from (104) pediatric nursing students in college of nursing Qassim University in KSA and (81) pediatric nursing students in college of nursing Port Said University in ARE. Findings: All of the nursing students were satisfied with all items of satisfaction regarding current learning and self-confidence in learning by simulation sessions, The means of Port Said nursing students were more than means of Qassim students regarding total Students’ satisfaction and self-confidence, all participant learners were satisfied with simulation sessions that were a positive way to learn and improve the learners to face the real life of the patients after the simulation session, all of the learners satisfied regarding evaluation of their feedback and the majority of the participants have adequate performance regarding items of child’ head to toe assessment in clinical after simulation sessions. Conclusions: the high fidelity simulation training had a positive impact on nursing students’ satisfaction, self-confidence and their performance in pediatric real situation in both Port Said and Al Qassim University. 
Lamiaa Ismail Keshk, Samah El Awady, Jihan Mahmoud Farra. The High Fidelity Simulation Training and Its Impact on Nursing Students’ Satisfaction, Self Confidence and Their Performance in Pediatric Real Situation: A Comparative Study. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(3): 1-15]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050319.01.
Keywords: High-fidelity patient simulation, student satisfaction, self-confidence, clinical competence

2. Upgrading pediatric nurses' knowledge and practice of neonatal pain assessment through in service educational program
Fatma Abdellah Mohamed 1, Sawsan Mahmoud El-Bana2, Eman Abd-Elaziz Mohamed 1, Nagat Farouk Abolwafa1
1Departments of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, South Valley and Minia Universities, Egypt

2Department of Pediatric Medicine, Children Hospital, Minia University, Egypt

Abstract: Background: Assessment of pain is a critical step to providing good pain management. Lack of pain assessment is one of the most problematic barriers to achieving good pain control. Neonatal pain assessment, measurement, and documentation are a challenge among many neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Aim of the study: to examine pediatric nurses' knowledge and practice of neonatal pain assessment through in service educational program. Research design: A pre/ post quasi-experimental research design was utilized in the present study. The study was carried out at Pediatric & Obstetric Hospital-Minia University and General Hospitals at neonatal care units. A convenient sample of 41 nurses was included in this study. Educational program for nurses was done through using the following data collection tools 1) Pre-designed questionnaire sheet, and 2) Observation checklists sheet. and 3) Educational and training program. Results: It was revealed that there was an obvious increase in the total mean score of knowledge and practice in post and follow up program phase compared with pretest phase, with a very highly significant difference (p<0.001). Age and years of experience had no effect on nurses' knowledge and practice pre\post\follow up test. Educational qualification affected nurses' knowledge during pre-test and nurses' practice during follow up test. Conclusion: The education program had a significant impact on pediatric nurses' knowledge and practices regarding of neonatal pain and pain assessment. Recommendations: More attention must be paid to pain assessment and control especially neonatal pain in the curriculum for all categories of nursing students. 
[Fatma Abdellah Mohamed, Sawsan Mahmoud El-Bana, Eman Abd-Elaziz Mohamed, Nagat Farouk Abolwaf. Upgrading pediatric nurses' knowledge and practice of neonatal pain assessment through in service educational program. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(3): 16-25]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050319.02.
Key Words: Pediatric nurses' knowledge - neonatal pain assessment -educational program

3. Evaluation of Using Multiple Ultrasonographic Parameters in the Prediction of Macrosomia in Pregnancies Affected By Gestational Diabetes
Prof. Mohamed Hesham Anwar, Prof. Youssef Al-Sayed Abo Shady, Dr. Ahmed Shaaban Mohamed, Tamer Samir Osman
Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Egypt

Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus is one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy, with an overall prevalence of 4–14 %. In pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus, fetal macrosomia is common, which is defined as a birth weight of at least 4000 grams or greater than the ninetieth percentile for gestational age. Macrosomia increases the risk of shoulder dystocia, brachial plexus injury, clavicular fractures, and increases the rate of admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit. For the mother the risks associated with macrosomia are caesarean delivery, postpartum hemorrhage and perineal lacerations. Antenatal prediction of macrosomia helps in identifying the population at highest risk for complications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of using multiple ultrasonographic parameters for prediction and follow up of macrosomia in gestational diabetic pregnancies between 28 and 32 weeks of gestation. This study included 100 pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes diagnosed by the presence of one or more oral glucose tolerance test values exceeding the normal thresholds, which are 92 mg/dl, 180 mg/dl and 153 mg/dl respectively. All patients had serial third-trimester u/s scans, Trans-abdominal scanner (3.5 MHz transducer) using Voluson E6 machine was used with recording of: basic fetal biometry, fetal anterior abdominal thickness, abdominal circumference percentile, placental thickness, interventricular septal thickness and estimated fetal weight by u/s then fetal birth weight is recorded. Results were collected and statistical analyses of the recorded measurements of the third trimester scan are done to evaluate the usefulness of each in prediction of fetal macrosomia. In present study the cut off of AAWT ≥5.5 mm as predictor of macrosomia had sensitivity of 63.9% and specificity of 75% and the cut off of Interventricular septal thickness ≥ 4 mm as a predictor of macrosomia had sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 93.75%, and negative predictive value of 76.9% and AC measurement ≥90th percentile was also useful as a screening tool. The obvious disadvantage of the AC ≥90th percentile cut- off is its false positive rate (12/36 positive results were false- positives). Final conclusion is that AAWT and IVS and AC PERCENTILE are useful parameters for early prediction of macrosomia in pregnant women with gestational diabetes.
[Mohamed Hesham Anwar, Youssef Al-Sayed Abo Shady, Ahmed Shaaban Mohamed, Tamer Samir Osman. Evaluation of Using Multiple Ultrasonographic Parameters in the Prediction of Macrosomia in Pregnancies Affected By Gestational Diabetes. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(3): 26-34]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050319.03.
Keywords: Evaluation; Multiple Ultrasonographic Parameter; Prediction; Macrosomia; Pregnancies; Gestational Diabetes

4. Review on Rabies Prevention and Control in Human and Animals in Ethiopia
Wondwossen Belay (DVM)

Mekdella Woreda Livestock Resource Development Office, Department of Animal health, Wollo, Ethiopia

Abstract: Rabies in Ethiopia is primarily a disease of dogs. However, many people receive post exposure anti-rabies treatment annually all over the country. Most people are at increased risk of being exposed to rabies, as man-dog contact is very common in the country. It is a fatal viral disease of all warm-blooded animals and humans. It gets infection via bites from infected animals. It is highly fatal with continuous increase of case in the world mostly developing country. Rabies continues to pose a severe burden to public health and is ranked one of the most fatal diseases. This is why I need to review about rabies virus disease in humans and animals. The virus is widespread in many regions of the world. Human rabies, transmitted by dogs is an important public health issue in Ethiopia. To-date, effective rabies control program still remains to be a reality and needs to be strengthened.
[Wondwossen Belay, Review on Rabies Prevention and Control in Human and Animals in Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(3): 35-43]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050319.04.
Key words: Control, Epidemiology, diagnosis, Prevention, Rabies, Post Exposure, Pre Exposure

5. Diagnosis and Management of Deliberate self-poisoning in the Emergency Department
Ning Yang1, Guogang Zhang2, Xiaogang Li1, Changluo Li3
1Emergency Department of Xiangya, Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, 410008, China
2Cardiovascular Department of Xiangya, Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, 410008, China
3Emergency Department of Changsha, Central Hospital, Changsha, 410008, China

Abstract: In recent years, stress and depression have led to the elevated suicide rate in China; the most common way of committing suicide is self-poisoning. However, we lack detailed, authoritative, uniform procedures for the diagnosis and management of self-poisoning in the emergency department (ED). To provide a description of the diagnosis and management of patients presenting to the ED with deliberate self-poisoning, and to evaluate the outcomes and medical costs associated with deliberate self-poisoning. Descriptive analysis of data collected by reviewing the medical records of all patients who presented to the ED during the period of study (1 January-31 December 2010) with a history of deliberate self-poisoning. A total of 3886 patients admitted to the ED during the study period were due to deliberate self-poisoning. The most common substance used in deliberate self-poisoning was pesticides (58%). Approximately 33% of patients were brought into the EICU for further therapy, approximately 30% were admitted to other wards in the hospital, and approximately 36% sought evaluation the ED. Twenty-two patients died. We should strengthen the management of pesticides to reduce the incidence of self-poisoning, especially in rural areas. Psychological intervention should be used in the future because it may be a valuable treatment after people have deliberately tried to poison themselves. Repeated questioning to obtain a detailed history is still very helpful in the ED. A significant number of new compounds have appeared as new poisonous substances, which have led to an increase in the number of poisoning cases. Additional research should be conducted to identify novel approaches of detoxification.
[Ning Yang, Guogang Zhang, Xiaogang Li, Changluo L. Diagnosis and Management of Deliberate self-poisoning in the Emergency Department. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(3): 44-47]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050319.05.
Keywords: deliberate self-poisoning; suicide; emergency department; pesticide; psychological intervention

6. Preliminary Study on Constitutive-Clindamycin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates of Nosocomial Origin
Chika Ejikeugwu1*, Malachy Ugwu2, Gerald C. Nwoke1, Chijioke Edeh1, Felix Nwezeagu1, Peter Eze3
1Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B. 053, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
3Department of Environmental Health Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria

Abstract: The resistance to antimicrobial agents among Staphylococci in both the community and hospital environment is an increasing problem that requires proper monitoring and containment. Erythromycin (a macrolide), clindamycin (a lincosamide) and streptogramin B are important antibiotics used clinically for treating bacterial-related infections; but the emergence of constitutive- and inducible-resistance mechanisms (especially target-site modification in target bacteria) in some S. aureus strains puts the efficacy of these antimicrobials at risk. When the mechanism of resistance is constitutive, the bacteria produce rRNA methylase (that compromises the antimicrobial properties of the antibiotic in vivo); but in inducible resistance, rRNA methylase is only produced in the presence of an inducing agent such as erythromycin. In this preliminary study, we phenotypically detected the occurrence of constitutive-clindamycin resistance (cMLSB) in 39 isolates of S. aureus of nosocomial origin. Antimicrobial susceptibility studies (antibiogram) were carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique and cMLSB phenotypes was detected using ‘D’ test. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexes were calculated for cMLSBphenotypes. Our results of antibiogram shows that the S. aureus isolates were highly resistant to over 50 % of the tested antibiotics especially to cloxacillin (100 %), bacitracin (92.31 %), (53.85 %), mupirocin (82.05 %) and oxacillin (89.74 %). Reduced susceptibility of the S. aureus isolates was also observed in clindamycin (89.74 %), a weak inducer, and erythromycin (53.85 %), a potent inducing agent. A total of 6 (15.4 %) S. aureus isolates out of the 39 S. aureus isolates investigated phenotypically by ‘D’ test were confirmed as constitutive-clindamycin resistant phenotypes. With a MARI value of about 0.7 on average, the cMLSB phenotypes were multiply resistant to the tested antibiotics. Due to the importance of clindamycin (a weak inducer) as an alternative antibiotic for treating staphylococcal-related infections, it is important to preserve the efficacy of this antibiotic through proper detection of cMLSB phenotypes from clinical samples since in vitro susceptibility to clindamycin might lead to treatment failure especially if the invading bacterium is of constitutive-clindamycin resistance phenotype (that is producing rRNA methylase in vivo).
[Chika Ejikeugwu, Malachy Ugwu,Gerald C. Nwoke, Chijioke Edeh, Felix Nwezeagu, Peter Eze. Preliminary Study on Constitutive-Clindamycin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates of Nosocomial Origin. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(3):48-52]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050319.06.
Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance, Clindamycin resistance, Antibiogram, Nosocomial infection, Nigeria

7. Synthesis of CuO Nanocrystal by Precipitation-Pyrolysis Method and Characterized by TEM and FTIR
S Pradhan1, A Acharya2
HOD, Physics, Vedvyas Mahavidyalaya, Rorkela, Odisha, India1
SIT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India2

Abstract: In this Paper we are going to discuss the preparation of nanocrystal CuO and nanorod CuO by a combined precipitation-pyrolysis method, which involves initially preparing precursors and finally decomposing the precursors in a furnace with different annealing temperatures, which lead to the final products of copper oxide nanocrystals. The Characterization done through TEM and FTIR.
[S Pradhan, A Achary. Synthesis of CuO Nanocrystal by Precipitation-Pyrolysis Method and Characterized by TEM and FTIR. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(3): 53-56]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050319.07.
Keywords: Synthesis; CuO; Nanocrystal; Precipitation-Pyrolysis; Method; TEM; FTIR

8. Improving lymph node harvest in rectal cancer by intra-arterial injection of methylene blue: A randomized trial
Mohamed H Mahmoud1, Mahmoud A Nagaty1 and Samy M Alwan2
1Departments of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
2Departments of General Surgery, Nasser hospital, Egypt

Abstract: Background: Prognosis in colorectal carcinoma is related to the state of lymph node involvement. Studies demonstrate that both survival and prognosis are significantly influenced by the number of lymph nodes harvested, particularly in node-negative disease. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of injecting methylene blue into the main artery/ arteries of resected colorectal specimens in terms of the total number of lymph nodes identified. Patients and methods: The study included 30 patients randomly divided into two groups: group 1 (15 patients), in which resected specimens of colorectal carcinoma were injected with methylene blue, and group 2, in which no injection was carried out. Results: The total number of lymph nodes per patient in group 1 was 19.5 (17–39) [median (range)] and that in group 2 was 16.5 (8–19). The difference was statistically highly significant (P < 0.001). We also noticed that the best improvement in lymph nodes harvest was among the very small and small lymph nodes. Conclusion: Methylene blue injection into the main artery/arteries is an effective and simple method for improving the lymph node harvest in resected specimens of colorectal carcinoma.
[Mohamed H Mahmoud, Mahmoud A Nagatyand Samy M Alwa. Improving lymph node harvest in rectal cancer by intra-arterial injection of methylene blue: A randomized trial. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(3): 57-61]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050319.08.
Keywords: Colorectal carcinoma, lymph nodes harvest, methylene blue injection

9. Effect of Talent Management on Nurses' Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Performance
Asmaa Kamal Ahmed1, Azza Abdeldayem Ata2, and Fatma Gouda Metwally2
1Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, El-Fayoum University, Egypt
2Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Egypt

Abstract: Talent management is becoming the precious strategic choice that ultimately enhances organizational performance.As well, intelligent hospitals use emotional intelligence as an approach to motivate their nurses to enhance their productivity and performance. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of talent management on nurses' emotional intelligence and organizational performance in two selected private hospitals. A descriptive correlation design was used to achieve the aim of this study. A convenience sample of 92 staff nurses were chosen from the selected private hospitals. To fulfill the purpose of this study three tools were used in data collection, talent management questionnaire, emotional intelligence instrument, and organizational performance instrument. Results showed that 79 % of nurses were satisfied with the talent management process in their workplaces. As well, 67% of nurses had a high level of emotional intelligence. Likewise, 92% of the studied nurses were satisfied with their organizational performance. Furthermore, there were significant and positive correlations between talent management as regards nurses' emotional intelligence and organizational performance, where p-value < 0.01. Conclusion: Talent management was a significant predictor of nurses' emotional intelligence and organizational performance. Recommendation: The human resources management department should develop new strategies to retain nurse talents in organizations such as increased salaries, continuous training, career enhancement and promotions.
[Asmaa Kamal Ahmed, Azza Abdeldayem Ata, and Fatma Gouda Metwally. Effect of Talent Management on Nurses' Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Performance. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(3): 62-71]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050319.09.
Keywords: Talent management, Emotional intelligence, Organizational performance

10.  Review on The Use of Nematophagus Fungi as biological control of nematode of livestock
Tolessa Ebissa and Dawit Hora
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Asossa University, Asossa 35099, Ethiopia
Email address:, Cell phone: +251921889089

Abstract:  In nature, abundant natural antagonists of helminthes are found which including fungi, bacteria, viruses, insects, mites and some invertebrates that have been found potential to prey or invade of helminthes. Fungi are considered as the major microbial organism in many soils that have a significant association with nematodes by constantly destroy nematodes in nearly all soils at different geographical areas to fulfill their nutritional requirements. Among these fungi, nematophagous or nematode-destroying fungi are those that can capture, parasitize or paralyze nematodes and act as natural enemies of plant-parasitic and animal-parasitic nematodes. Therefore the objective of this paper is to review the use of Nematophagus fungi as biological control for nematodes in livestock and to highlight different types of nematophagus fungi and their mechanisms of action. Nematophagous fungi are cosmopolitan microorganisms able to modify their saprophytic behavior to carnivorous which enables them to act as natural enemies of nematodes. Depending on their mode of attacking mechanisms nematophagous fungi are divided into four groups as nematode-trapping, endoparasitic, egg and female-parasitic and toxin-producing fungi. These groups of fungi are used as best option as biocontrol where currently the problem of anthelminthic resistance is increasing since they decrease the level of nematode free-living stages in the soil ecosystem. Nowadays it is becoming an important non-chemical option for controlling gastrointestinal nematode in animals since biocontrol agents can control a target organism by reducing its population to a level that no longer causes clinical problems and economic losses. 
[Tolessa Ebissa and Dawit Hora. Review on The Use of Nematophagus Fungi as biological control of nematode of livestock. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(3): 72-82]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050319.10.
Keywords: Biocontrol, livestock, Nematode and Nematophagus fungi.

11. The Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Ovine Fasciollosis, Northwest Ethiopia.
Siltanu Tadesse1, Kindye Amenu1, Getinet Ayalew2
1. Department of Biomedical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar, Gondar, P.O. Box. 196, Ethiopia.
2. Department of Animal Science, Dawuro Tarcha Campus, Wolaita Sodo University, Tarch, P.O. Box. 138, Ethiopia
Telephone: +251-0926096499; Email:

Abstract: A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of fasciollosis in Ovine in three randomly selected areas (Adissalem, Dagi and Merawi) of Mecha district, north west Ethiopia. A total 384 sheep were examined for the presence of Fasciola eggs by coproscopical examination. Fifty two questionnaires were also administered. The eggs were examined using standard fecal sedimentation technique. The overall prevalence was 28.9%. The Prevalence rates were 7.3% in young and 21.6% in adult sheep. The site related Prevalence rates were; 19.8%, 7.3% and 1.8% in Adissalem, Dagi and Merawi, respectively. Furthermore, prevalence rate was seasonally varied; it was 15.1%, 2.9%, 5.2% and 5.7% in November, December, January and February, respectively during the study period. The study indicated as there is very significant statistical deference among; Age group, feeding point, districts and season (P = 0.00, 0.002, 0.00 and 0.000) respectively in the occurrences of Fasciola. The questionnaire survey revealed that snail is dominant in the study area. Thirty (57.7%) of the farmers indicated that fasciolosis was prevalent during the wet seasons of the year. The epidemiology of fasciolosis is affected with different animal and environmental factors Therefore, further studies on the epidemiology, seasonal dynamic of the disease, the snail and impacts of the disease in animal production need to be conducted.
[Getinet A, Siltan T, Kindye A. The Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Ovine Fasciollosis, Northwest Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(3): 83-89]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). doi:10.7537/marsbnj050319.11.
Keywords: Coproscopy; Fasciolosis; Mecha; Ovine; Prevalence

12. Transfusion Transmitted Syphilis Among Potential Male Blood Donors in Some Hospitals in Port Harcourt Town, Rivers State, Nigeria
Adewuyi SA, Frank-Peterside N, Otokunefor K, Abeni BA, Cookey TI, Okonko IO
Virus Research Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

E-mail:; Tel: +2348035380891

Abstract: Blood transfusion is associated with a high risk of exposure to transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) including syphilis among others. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of syphilis among intending male blood donors in two hospitals (private and government-owned) in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria and the effect of some demographic factors on the prevalence. A total of 182 sera samples from male donors were screened for the presence of antibodies to Treponema pallidum using Syphilis Ab version ULTRA enzyme immunoassay technique respectively. Chi-square test was used to determine the relationship of some demographic factors with syphilis prevalence. The overall seroprevalence of syphilis was 6.6% with seronegativity of 94.5%. There was a significant relationship (p<0.05) between the seroprevalence of Syphilis with respect to age. Total of 83.4% of syphilis positive was found in the age group of 31-40 years old. Donors with Primary school level made up 33.3% of Syphilis positive cases. The lowest of 8.3% was seen in undergraduates. A percentage of 83.4% positive cases were seen among donors with low skill occupation as compared to 8.3% each of unemployed and high skill donors. There was relatively low number of voluntary donors (3.8%) as compared to family donors (48.9%) and paid donors (47.3%). The seroprevalence of syphilis, remain a threat to safe blood transfusion and public health in Nigeria. Strict enforcement of mandatory screening and aggressive public enlightenment are recommended as preventive measures against TTIs.
[Adewuyi SA, Frank-Peterside N, Otokunefor K, Abeni BA, Cookey TI, Okonko IO. Transfusion Transmitted Syphilis Among Potential Male Blood Donors in Some Hospitals in Port Harcourt Town, Rivers State, Nigeria. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(3): 90-96]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 12. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050319.12.
Keywords: Transfusion, Transmitted Syphilis, Blood Donors, Nigeria

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