ISSN 2379-8203

BIOMEDICINE & NURSING

Biomedicine and Nursing
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Volume 5 - Issue 4 (Cumulated No. 19), December 25, 2019. (COVER)  
 
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1. A Review on Biofilm Formation with Health and Industrial Impacts
Getinet Ayalew
Department of Animal and Range Science, Wolaita Sodo University, Dawro-Tarcha Campus, Tarcha, Ethiopia, B.O.B. 138.
quine2003@gmail.com

Abstract: Biofilms are assemblages of microbial cells formed by one or more species (bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa) that are irreversibly associated with a surface and enclosed in a matrix of primary polysaccharide materials that allow the growth and survival in sessile environments. Biofilm is formed when microbes adhere to surfaces in aqueous environments and (EPS) that can anchor the cells in all kinds of material such as metals, plastics, soil particles, medical implant materials, living tissues, industrial or potable waste-system piping or natural aquatic systems. Species of microbes forming Biofilm mainly characterized by a high degree of interaction between different types of organisms and by more or less immobilized form of life. Biofilm development is considered to progress in five stages (reversible attachment, irreversible attachment, maturation I, maturation II and dispersion). This is regulated by different genetic and environmental factors. Genetic studies show that bacterial motility, cell membrane proteins, extracellular polysaccharides and signaling molecules play significant role in biofilm formation. On the other hand, different signals from environment such as nutrients, oxygen, temperature, and pH take part in regulation of biofilm formation. Biofilms have negative and positive attributes in home and industries. The mechanism of resistance of biofilm towards antimicrobial therapy is not yet explained but on hypothesis it is due to delayed penetration, altered growth rate and other physiological changes. In elimination of biofilm, combinations of physical and chemical methods are needed. Finally further studies on mechanisms of their resistance towards therapy are recommended. 
[Getinet A. A Review on Biofilm Formation with Health and Industrial Impacts. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(4): 1-13]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050419.01.
Key words: Biofilm, Bacteria, microbe, Adhesion, Polymeric substance, Antimicrobial resistance


2. Study on the Prevalence of Ovine Haemonchosis and its Associated Risk Factors at Debre Birhan Municipal Abattoir, North Shoa, Ethiopia
Hailemariyam Amarea, Getinet Ayalewb
a Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health science, University of Gondar, P.O. Box. 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.
b Department of Animal and Range Science, Dawro Tarcha Campus, Wolaita Sodo University, P.O. Box 138, Tarcha Ethiopia.
bquine2003@gmail.com

Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Haemonchosis at Debre Birhan municipal abattoir of North Shoa zone of Amhara Regional State from November 2011 to March 2012. A total of 384 abomasums of sheep were selected and taken with simple random sampling and examined according to standard procedures. Data cleaning was conducted on the collected row data within excel. OpenEpi and SPSS V.20 were used for statistical analysis. The overall prevalence recorded in this study was 41% (158 of 384). The infection rate was highly significant on body condition, origin of animal (lowland or highland) (P = 0.000). While, the observed value was not statistically significant across age and sex (P = 0.223, P = 0.182). The result of current study indicated as there is very significant value on the bases animals body condition and color of conjunctival mucus membrane basis (P = 0.000, P = 0.000). Ovine Haemonchosis with its wide distribution has become a very important production constraint especially in the study area where sheep production is common. Body condition, origin, mucus membrane had significance difference on the Haemonchosi, while age and sex did not have significant result. So proper control measure of the disease should be implemented.
[Hailemariyam Amare, Getinet Ayale. Study on the Prevalence of Ovine Haemonchosis and its Associated Risk Factors at Debre Birhan Municipal Abattoir, North Shoa, Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(4): 14-19]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050419.02.
Keywords; Debre Birhan; Haemonchus contortus; Ovine; Prevalence


3. The Prevalence and Socio-economic Importance of Major Metacestodes of Cattle at Debre-Tabour Municipal Abattoir, Northwest Ethiopia
Kindye Amenu1, Getinet Ayalew2
1 Department of Biomedical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar, Gondar, P.O. Box. 196, Ethiopia.
2 Department of Animal and Range Science, Dawuro Tarcha Campus, Wolaita Sodo University, Tarch, P.O. Box. 138, Ethiopia

quine2003@gmail.com

Abstract: A cross sectional study to determine the prevalence and socioeconomic importance of major metacestodes of cattle was carried out at Debre Tabour municipal abattoir. Random sampling was used to select 406 slaughtered cattle. Form the total slaughtered, 7.6% and 16.5% were infected with Cysticercus bovis (C.bovis) and hydatid cysts, respectively, with different organ distribution. The major risk factors for cysticercosis prevalence were origin of the animals (P = 0.012, OR = 2.9) and hydatid cysts prevalence was significantly varied with different age groups (P = 0.000, OR = 9.4). The viability of C. bovis was higher (38.3%) than that of hydatid cyst (23.5%). Of 79 interviewed respondents, 50.6% had acquired taeniasis and analysis of the risk factors showed association of religions (P = 0.003, OR = 24.4), occupation (P= 0.001, OR = 6.9), educational background (P = 0.035, OR = 2.7) and age (P < 0.001, OR = 3.9) of the respondents with taeniasis prevalence. Furthermore, the inventory of taeniasis drugs dose and treatment cost were estimated to be 308,490 adult doses and 20221.96 USD. In conclusion, the findings of the present study imply the zoonotic and socioeconomic importance of the diseases, which need intervention. 
[Kindye A, Getinet A, Siltanu T. The Prevalence and Socio-economic Importance of Major Metacestodes of Cattle at Debre-Tabour Municipal Abattoir, Northwest Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(4): 20-30]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050419.03.
Keywords: Abattoir, Cattle, Debre Tabour, Metacestode, Prevalence


4. Role of Silver Nanoparticles in Colorimetric Detection of Biomolecules
Shahzad Sharif Mughal1, Faheem Abbas2*, Muhammad Usman Tahir2, Ali raza ayub2, Hafiza Maria javed2, Muhammad mamtaz2, Hafiza iram2
1Department of chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, Pakistan
2Department of chemistry, university of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding author’s email: faheemabbas78688@gmail.com

Abstract: Nanotechnology deals with the study and manipulation of materials on an atomic or a molecular scale almost less than 100 nm. Nanotechnology encompasses the synthesis and applications of biological, chemical and physical systems which ranges from individual atom to molecular or submicron level. It is the more interesting field for the scientists due to various applications in different fields of science e.g., biomedical engineering, material science, medicine and electronics at nanoscale level. The particles ranges from 1 to 100 nm by a surrounded interfacial layer are basically called nanoparticles. Ag nanoparticles are the most fascinating and vital nanoparticles amongst the other metallic nanoparticles like gold, tin, palladium etc. In this review literature, the synthesis and properties of Ag nanoparticles have been discussed. Herein, main area of study interest is to find biomolecules by using conventional as well as colorimetric detection methods with silver nanoparticles. Synthesis and characterization of Ag nanoparticles is an immense attention in nanotechnology due to its wide range applications in industries. Ag nanoparticles are synthesized by different methods (physical, chemical, biological and photochemical methods), amongst these methods green synthesis method is most favorable method, because it is cost effective and eco friendly method. Ag nanoparticles have various significant properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-cancer, and anti-angiogenic etc. Nanoparticles possess many applications in different fields of life e.g., medicine, biomedical devices, multicolor optical coding, manipulation of biomolecule (proteins, DNA, cysteine), environmental remediation and cosmetics. The aim of prospective applications is to investigate the colorimetric and optical detection of biomolecule by Ag nanoparticles, e.g., dopamine, proteins, DNA etc. because of its highly sensitivity and selectivity. The colorimetric detection of various biomolecules by Ag nanoparticles has inherent chirality. Ag nanoparticles provides high surface to volume ratio and function for detection of proteins, nucleic acid, ions and molecules. Ag nanoparticles as colorimetric probes and chiral selector are helpful in determining citalopramenantiomers. However, we can easily read out the assay described in this work with naked eye and by use of ultra violet spectrometer.
[Shahzad Sharif Mughal, Faheem Abbas, Muhammad Usman Tahir, Ali raza ayub, Hafiza Maria javed, Muhammad mamtaz, Hafiza iram. Role of Silver Nanoparticles in Colorimetric Detection of Biomolecules. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(4):31-47]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050419.04.
Key words: silver nanoparticles; colorimetric detection; biomolecule; applications


5. Major Metacestodes of Cattle: Prevalence and Socio-economic Importance at Debre-Tabour Municipal Abattoir, Northwest Ethiopia
Kindye Amenu1, Getinet Ayalew2, Siltanu Tadesse1
1. Department of Biomedical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar, Gondar, P.O. Box. 196, Ethiopia.
2. Department of Animal Science, Dawuro Tarcha Campus, Wolaita Sodo University, Tarch, P.O. Box. 138, Ethiopia
quine2003@gmail.com

Abstract: A cross sectional study to determine the prevalence and socioeconomic importance of major metacestodes of cattle was carried out at Debre Tabour municipal abattoir. Random sampling was used to select 406 slaughtered cattle. Form the total slaughtered, 7.6% and 16.5% were infected with Cysticercus bovis (C.bovis) and hydatid cysts, respectively, with different organ distribution. The major risk factors for cysticercosis prevalence were origin of the animals (P = 0.012, OR = 2.9) and hydatid cysts prevalence was significantly varied with different age groups (P = 0.000, OR = 9.4). The viability of C. bovis was higher (38.3%) than that of hydatid cyst (23.5%). Of 79 interviewed respondents, 50.6% had acquired taeniasis and analysis of the risk factors showed association of religions (P = 0.003, OR = 24.4), occupation (P= 0.001, OR = 6.9), educational background (P = 0.035, OR = 2.7) and age (P < 0.001, OR = 3.9) of the respondents with taeniasis prevalence. Furthermore, the inventory of taeniasis drugs dose and treatment cost were estimated to be 308,490 adult doses and 20221.96 USD. In conclusion, the findings of the present study imply the zoonotic and socioeconomic importance of the diseases, which need intervention. 
[Kindye A, Getinet A, Siltanu T. Major Metacestodes of Cattle: Prevalence and Socio-economic Importance at Debre-Tabour Municipal Abattoir, Northwest Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(4): 48-57]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050419.05.
Keywords: Abattoir, Cattle, Debre Tabour, Metacestode, Prevalence


6. 16S RNA Survey Of Anaerobic Microcosms Of A Niger Delta Wetland Impacted With High Levels Of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons
Akomah-Abadaike Onyinyechi Ndimele1*, Deborah Catharine de Assis Leite2, Gideon O. Abu1
1 – Department of Microbiology, faculty of Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

2 - LEMM, Laboratory of Molecular Microbial Ecology. Institute of Microbiology Paulo de Góes. Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
onyinyechi.akomah@yahoo.com

Abstract: Sediment samples were collected at georeferenced sites from the Egbara stream of Ejamah Ebubu community in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. In vitro experiments were set up to assess the potential for bioremediation of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) impacted sediment under anaerobic conditions, in the presence of indigenous microorganisms. The experiment consisted of added consortium, non added consortium and autoclaved controls in 100 ml serum bottles. Results show that all serum bottles containing the medium to enrich sulphate reducing bacteria and total anaerobic bacteria tested positive. DGGE fingerprinting for 16S rRNA gene and dsrA gene revealed different profile for various consortia and sampling points. Real time qPCR analysis revealed differences with various consortia, in the order; bacteria abundance in added consortium greater than non added consortium greater than autoclaved control. Test with oil recorded 16S rRNA gene copy number in the range 3.35 x 107 – 4.93 x 1011 (µg/µl), test without oil ranged from 7.76 x 106 – 3.79 x 108 (µg/µl), test with autoclaved killed cells ranged from 5.60 x 102 – 2.48 x 106 (µg/µl). The dsrA gene fragments in the test with oil ranged from 6.03 x 103- 1.03 x 109(µg/µl), test without oil ranged from 8.06 x 104 – 5.61 x 106 (µg/µl), test with autoclaved killed cells ranged from 6.21 x 101 – 1.06 x 105 (µg/µl). It is recommended that sulphate be utilized for bioremediation of anoxic sites; sulphate reducing bacteria of contaminated sites be studied for optimum utilization of their potentials.
[Akomah-Abadaike Onyinyechi Ndimele, Deborah Catharine de Assis Leite, Gideon O. Abu. 16S RNA Survey Of Anaerobic Microcosms Of A Niger Delta Wetland Impacted With High Levels Of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(4): 58-66]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050419.06.
Keywords: Georeferenced, Bioremediation, Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, DGGE, Sulphate reducing bacteria


7. Serological surveys of maedi visna virus in sheep population of selected areas of eastern amhara, ethiopia
Enyiew Alemnew1; Tadiwos Asfaw1; Chekol Demis1; Fasil Aklilu2; Yeshtila Wondifra1, Habtamu Addis1, Mulunesh Yenew2
1 Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Centre, Po. Box 112, Debre Birhan Ethiopia
2 National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Centre, Po. Box: 04, Sebeta, Ethiopia
Telephone: 0927681130; E-mail: yohansaddis68@gmail.com

Abstracts: Maedi-Visna (MV) causes a significant economical loss through morbidity, mortality and carcass weight loss in sheep worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associations with potential risk factors of Maedi-visna virus infection in the selected areas of the Eastern Amhara. A total of 323 Awsi cross sheep blood sera were collected in the period from November, 2017 to October, 2018 and examined using indirect enzyme linked immune-sorbet assay (i-ELISA) to screen antibodies against Maedi-Visna virus. From a total sample tested 4.0% (13/323) were positive for the presence of antibodies against Maedi visna virus (MVV) in the area. The seroprevalence of Maedi visna was statistically no significantly different between associated risk factors of age (χ2=2.193, p=0.139), sex (χ2=0.288, p=0.591), body condition score (χ2=1.378, p=0.502). This study showed relatively low seroprevalence against Meadi Visna in sheep population in these study areas of the country. Due to difficulty in clinical diagnosis, chronic course of the disease, the absence of effective vaccine and treatment and huge economic loss, a comprehensive epidemiological study all over the country in high sheep population areas should be taken without delay to depict the real picture of the disease in the country.
[Enyiew Alemnew; Tadiwos Asfaw; Chekol Demis1; Fasil Aklilu; Yeshtila Wondifra, Habtamu Addis, Mulunesh Yenew. Serological surveys of maedi visna virus in sheep population of selected areas of eastern amhara, ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(4): 67-72]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050419.07.
Key words: Maedi-visna virus; risk factors, seroprevalence and sheep


8. A perspective review on green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Ocimum sanctum (tulsi)
Shahzad Sharif Mughal1, Syeda Mona Hassan1*, Nagina Shabbir1, Maryam Mushtaq1, Sumaira Perveiz1, Muneeza Muneer1, Asma Aslam1
1Department of chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan
*Corresponding author’s email: s.monahassan@lgu.edu.pk

Abstract: In green nanotechnology, an interest is developed among researcher to synthesis nanomaterial. Due to physico-chemical and biological properties of Ag nanoparticles synthesized by bio materials have diverse applications in various fields including biosensors, optoelectronics, drug delivery, and magnetic devices etc. This review emphasis the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tulsi Ocimum Sanctum leaves under the discipline of green chemistry. Green synthesis method is an eco-friendly method, cost efficient provides a potential to synthesis metallic nanoparticles by different plants. The use of plants for synthesis of Ag nanoparticles has fascinated the researcher to find out the metal uptake & mechanism involved in the reduction of Ag ions into Ag nanoparticles. All the nano particles have a size ranges from 1nm-100nm. To investigate the effect of tulsi and its derivative quercetin regards to the formation of Ag nanoparticles, some physico-chemical conditions are employed e. g., temperature, reactant concentration, pH, and reaction time. The main characterization of Ag nanoparticles generally investigated by various techniques includes UV-Visible spectroscopy, Mass spectrometry, X-RAY Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) etc. The characterizations reveal that synthesis of Ag nanoparticles by tulsi leaf and its derivative quercetin have the same optical, anti-bacterial and morphological characteristics. So the results demonstrate that quercetin present in tulsi is responsible for the reduction of Ag ion to Ag nanoparticles.
[Shahzad Sharif Mughal, Syeda Mona Hassan, Nagina Shabbir, Maryam Mushtaq, Sumaira Perveiz, Muneeza Muneer, Asma Aslam. A perspective review on green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Ocimum sanctum (tulsi). Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(4): 73-81]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050419.08.
Key words: Green synthesis; Ag nanoparticles; Tulsi; quercetin; characterization.


9. Diagnosis And Treatment Of Cancer And Other Diseases By Using Nanoparticles And Quantum Dots: A Review 
Shahzad Sharif Mughal1, Syeda Mona Hassan1*, Muneeza Muneer1, Sumaira Pervez1, Maryam Mushtaq1, Nagina Shabbir1, Asma Aslam1
1Department of chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan
*Corresponding author’s email: s.monahassan@lgu.edu.pk

Abstract: Nanoscale materials that are found in many kinds at nano scale stage. Nanoparticles are vast class of things that contain small discrete mass of matter which have one particular range from 1-100nm. Nanoparticles are zero dimension, two dimensions and three dimensions etc. There are broad class of Nanoparticles which is used in disease diagnosis and treatment. Nanoparticles collaborated with the drug, increase its effectiveness. Surface of nanoparticles is modified with many agents and used in different disease. One of best purpose of nanoparticles is in drug delivery. Nanoparticles are not effective in human diseases but also helpful in plant disease. Different nanodevices like nanowires and cantilevers are very effective for gastrointestinal diseases. Specialists at Osaka University have joined nanopore sensors with man-made brainpower methods and showed that they can recognize single infection particles. This technique may give fast, purpose of utilization, ID of infections. A strategy for recognizing malignancy cells in the circulation system is being created utilizing nanoparticles called NanoFlares. The NanoFlares are structured tie to hereditary focuses in disease cells, and create light when that specific hereditary objective is found. Nanoparticles uses in different methods like MRI increased its efficiency for imaging. Many of imaging techniques like ultrasound imaging (USI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging (OI) ultrasound imaging (USI) for study of inside and outside study of human beings and others. There are different types of nanoparticles used in these techniques which help in vivo and vitro study. For treatment purpose, DNA vaccine coated SiO2 (LDH) nanoparticles induced antibody is used mostly. For this, nano spray recently discovered that picks up the insects. So, role of nanoparticles is effective. 
[Shahzad Sharif Mughal, Syeda Mona Hassan, Muneeza Muneer, Sumaira Pervez, Maryam Mushtaq, Nagina Shabbir, Asma Aslam. Diagnosis And Treatment Of Cancer And Other Diseases By Using Nanoparticles And Quantum Dots: A Review. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(4): 82-90]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050419.09.
Key words: Diagnosis; cancer treatment; nanoparticles; quantum dots


10. Study on Prevalence and its Potential Risk Factors of Gastrointestinal Parasite in Small Ruminants in Bambasi, Homosha and Kurmuk Districts of Assosa Zone, Western Ethiopia.
1Haile Worku, 2* Dawit Tsefaye, 2* G/hiwot W/michael, 2* Kebede Gurmessa, 2* Yeshihareg Abebe
1 Benishngul -Gumuz Regional State, Bureau of Agriculture and Natural Resource, P.O. Box: 30 Assosa, Ethiopia Email: workuhaile29@mail.com
2* Benishngul -Gumuz Regional State, Assosa Regional Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Asossa, Ethiopia.


Abstract: A cross sectional study was conducted from February to June 2019 to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with small ruminants’ gastrointestinal helminthes parasite in Bambasi, Homesha and Kurmuk Districts, Assosa Zone, Western part of Ethiopia. Based on coprological examination a total of 432 small ruminants’ fecal samples (86 sheep and 346 goats) were collected and examined using standard parasitological procedures of direct smear, sedimentation and flotation techniques. The present study revealed that the overall prevalence of the major gastrointestinal helminthes parasite was 244 (56.5%). Out of 244 positive samples the species of parasite were found with the prevalence of strongly (29.9%), Trichuris (1.22%), Ascaris (9.83%), Paramphistomum (2.05%), Emeria (42.6%), Oesophagostomum (0.82%), Monesia (0.82%) and as mixed infection (12.7%). The study indicate that 45.4% and 59.3% of sheep and goats respectively were infected with one or more helminthes and higher prevalence was recorded in goats than sheep but there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) between the specious animal. Similarly Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes infection among Female and Male animals and between body conditions was not statistically significant (P>0.05) of the study animals. There was also statistically significant variation (P<0.05) was observed in young animal than adult animal with the prevalence of 64.8% and 52.9% respectively. Hence, the study indicated that the prevailing of various types of gastrointestinal helminthes signaling the importance of devising strategic and appropriate control measures to mitigate the parasitic adverse impacts on livestock production and health in the studied areas.
[Haile Worku, Dawit Tsefaye, G/hiwot W/michael, Kebede Gurmessa, Yeshihareg Abebe. Study on Prevalence and its Potential Risk Factors of Gastrointestinal Parasite in Small Ruminants in Bambasi, Homosha and Kurmuk Districts of Assosa Zone, Western Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2019;5(4): 91-97]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj050419.10.
Keywords: Gastrointestinal helminthes, Assosa zone, Prevalence, Risk factor, Small ruminant


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