ISSN 2379-8203


​​Biomedicine and Nursing

Volume 6 - Issue 1 (Cumulated No. 20), March 25, 2020. (COVER)   
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1. Retrospective Epidemiological Study on Goat Disease in Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center Ataye Boer Breeding, Evaluation and Distribution Site, North Shoa, Ethiopia
1Enyiew Alemnew*, 1Erdachew Yitagesu, 2Habtamu Addis, 1Alemnew Areaya
1 Amhara Agricultural Research Institute, Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Centre, Livestock Research Directorate, Po. Box 112, Debre Birhan Ethiopia
2 Debremarkose University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, P.O. Box, 73, Debremarkose, Ethiopia
Telephone: 0921281124; E-mail:

Abstract: The information of diseases prevalence give useful information on disease pattern and thus can be used in preventing diseases as well as formulating policies for future management to prevent diseases. A retrospective epidemiological study of goats diseases were undertaken at Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center, Ataye Boer Breeding, Evaluation and Distribution Site, from September 2015 to August 2019 to determine the pattern, temporal distribution and associated risk factor of clinical cases. The data’s were collected from registered case record book. A total of 2025 cases were documented during the time period, which were analyzed to assess the importance of existing diseases. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 and Chi-square test for significance test. Goats were significantly suffering from various diseases and disorders. The maximum 509 (25.1%) was affected by integumentary disease and lowest 3 (0.1%) was affected with urolthiasis. The others diseases highest to lowest rate were 429 (21.2%), 333(16.4%), 311 (15.4%), 192 (9.5%), 98 (4.8%),61 (3.0%), 57(2.8%), 28 (1.4%), and 4 (0.2) affected with respiratory disease, gastrointestinal disease, infectious disease, reproductive disease, deficiency and metabolic disease, musculoskeletal disease, nerve disease, cold stress, and congenital defect respectively. There was statistically highly significant relation between diseases and sex of goats. The highest disease prevalence 1327 (65.5%) was observed in female than male 698(34.5%). Breeds had significant effect, the highest disease prevalence 1238 (61.1%) was observed in cross goat than pure boer 429(21.2%) and local goat 358 (17.6%). Similarly, the age had significant effect and highest value were 1010 (49.9%), 390 (19.3%), 383 (18.9), and 242 (12.0%) observed in >730 days, 0-180days, 181-365days, and 366-330days ages of goats respectively. Also, the season had significant effect and the overall disease prevalence were highest in winter 731 (356.5%), spring 451 (22.3%), autumn 446 (22), and summer 389 (19.2). Based on the results of this retrospective epidemiologic study of goat diseases; respiratory distress 338, enteritis 289, local abscess 279, or 183 and cawdrosis 160 were the most clinical cases and health problems in the study site.
[Enyiew Alemnew, Erdachew Yitagesu, Habtamu Addis, Alemnew Areaya. Retrospective Epidemiological Study on Goat Disease in Debre Birhan Agricultural Research Center Ataye Boer Breeding, Evaluation and Distribution Site, North Shoa, Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2020;6(1):1-10]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj060120.01.
Keywords: Age, Diseases, Morbidity, Prevalence, Seasons, Sex

2. The research status of cosmetics and the establishment of biological beautiology
Li Zhao, Huaijie Zhu*
Jacksun Easy Biotech Inc. New York, USA.

*Corresponding author E-mail: The Department of Pathology, Columbia University, New York, The 2ndAffiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University

Abstract: Reviewing the history of cosmetics, the discovery of glycerin and its absorption of water in the 1720s promoted the development of synthetic cosmetics. After the second world war, the development of world economy brought the production of synthetic cosmetics, and the prosperity of synthetic cosmetics reached in the 1970s. However, due to the name of functionality, a variety of additives in cosmetics increasingly increased, entered a dangerous cosmetic period. Due to the appearance of synthetic cosmetics to environmental pollution and human toxicity, the world started the "return to nature" and entered the period of natural cosmetics. But, because there is no research evidence to explain, the theory basis that the skin has absorb nutrition to go realizing hairdressing goes as a result of skin itself physiology structure cannot absorb functional characteristic, accordingly, still cannot achieve the goal that protects skin. A survey of 366 women using cosmetics in three Chinese cities by Jacksun Easy Biotech Inc; 1) the damage of synthetic cosmetics to human face is manifested in facial chloasma, and the incidence of senile plaque and skin allergy is increased; 2) the younger the age, the higher the incidence of various spots. Based on this investigation and the above review of the history of cosmetics, it is concluded that currently cosmetics on the market only damage and harm to human skin. Dr. Zhu Huaijie, CEO of the company, proposed a new concept of cosmetic skin care, biological cosmetology, Namely without violating normal metabolism of skin cells, choose has confirmed that is harmless to the human body, and have certain effect to the cells of our bodies function of physical and/or chemical substances, by regulating the biological cells growth and metabolic changes, realize skin keratinization anomaly correction at the same time, to realize the process of skin beauty, called biological cosmetology.
[Li Zhao, Huaijie Zhu. The research status of cosmetics and the establishment of biological beautiology. Biomedicine and Nursing 2020;6(1):11-17]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj060120.02.
Keywords: cosmetic, Biological Beautiology, biology, cosmetics harm, Skin care, synthesis of cosmetics, Acne care, skin disease, Acne treatment.

3. Ethical Leadership and Feedback Seeking: A Mediation Model of Leader-Member Exchange and Psychological Empowerment among Nurses
Alia Ibrahim Mohamed(1) and Hanan Meslhy Mohamed (2)
Lecturer, Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Egypt

Abstract: Background: Globalization and development of communication technologies resulted in ethical problems in health care settings as well. Consequently, in all areas of life, such as politics, media and education, administrators make ethical decisions and behave in an ethical manner while resolving disputes and enhancing the sense of trust between subordinates and interaction, so as to receive feedback. Aim: Assess the relationship among ethical leadership (EL) and nurses’ feedback-seeking behavior from supervisors and coworkers, leader-member exchange (LMX) and psychological empowerment, in addition, testing a new mediation model that examines LMX and psychological empowerment as the mediators in the relationships between Ethical Leadership and nurses’ feedback-seeking behavior from supervisors and coworkers. Design: A descriptive correlational study design was used. Sample: A stratified, random sample was chosen of 400 nurses. Tools: A questionnaire sheet was used to gather data for this research, containing six parts: Personal characteristics of the studied nurses, EL scale, feedback seeking from supervisor scale, feedback seeking from coworkers scale, leader-member exchange scale, and psychological empowerment scale. Results: Findings revealed that Ethical Leadership was significantly and positively correlated to feedback seeking from supervisors, feedback seeking from coworkers, leader-member exchange, and psychological empowerment. Conclusion: The LMX and psychological empowerment are mediated of relationship between ethical leadership and feedback seeking from both nurse supervisors and coworkers. Recommendations: Increase training program about ethical leadership and encouraging it. Integrating relationship building training into Ethical Leadershipdevelopment programs and giving opportunities for supervisors to develop their EL to motivate nurses to seek feedback. 
[Alia Ibrahim Mohamed and Hanan Meslhy Mohamed. Ethical Leadership and Feedback Seeking: A Mediation Model of Leader-Member Exchange and Psychological Empowerment among Nurses. Biomedicine and Nursing 2020;6(1): 18-27].ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj060120.03.
Key words: Ethical Leadership, Feedback seeking, Leader-member exchange, Psychological empowerment

4. Effect of Nursing Intervention Programs on Improving Caregivers Performance Regarding Type II Diabetes Mellitus Management in Elderly People
Samia Farouk Mahmoud1, Mervat Elshahat Ibrahim2, Elsaida Gamal Ali Bagdady3.
1 Lecturer of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Egypt
2Lecturer of Family and Community Health Nursing, Faculty Of Nursing, Suez Canal University, Egypt
3lecturer of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University

Abstract: Background: The treatment goals for type 2 diabetes in the elderly are potentially no different from those for younger patients. Therapy is aimed at attaining optimal levels of serum glucose, training caregivers in skills essential for the day to day management of elderly with diabetes. Aim of the study: was to evaluate the effect of nursing intervention programs on improving caregivers performance regarding type II diabetes mellitus management in elderly people. Subjects and Methods: Research design: A quasi-experimental design was used. Setting: The study was conducted at six nursing homes in Cairo. Subjects: Fifty-six caregivers from the previously mentioned settings were included in the study. Tools of data collection: Two tools were used: Tool (I): Caregiver’s knowledge about management of diabetes mellitus, self-administered questionnaire. Tool (II): Caregiver's practice observation checklist. Results: The main points of knowledge that improved by nursing intervention were as follows; complications of diabetes from 32.1% in pre-sessions, to 98.2% immediately post sessions and 82.1%, at 3 months of post sessions. Additionally, Care of diabetic foot, from 50.0% in pre-sessions, to 94.6% immediately post sessions and 83.9%, at 3 months of post sessions. Moreover, the role of exercise and nutrition in type II DM management improved, from 16.1% in pre-sessions, to 100% immediately post sessions and 98.2%, at 3 months of post sessions. Furthermore, the total practice score of the studied caregivers were scored as good practice level by 0.0% in preprogram implementation which improved to 83.9% & 62.5% in post and follow up program implementation respectively. Conclusions: The present study concluded that caregivers' performance was greatly improved immediately after implementation of nursing intervention. Unfortunately, this improvement slightly declined in the next three months. Recommendations: The study recommended continuous in-service training for caregivers about its management regarding diabetes mellitus.
[Samia Farouk Mahmoud, Mervat Elshahat Ibrahim, Elsaida Gamal Ali Bagdady. Effect of Nursing Intervention Programs on Improving Caregivers Performance Regarding Type II Diabetes Mellitus Management in Elderly People. Biomedicine and Nursing 2020;6(2): 28-38]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj060220.04.

Key words: Caregivers, type II diabetes mellitus Performance, programs, Elderly people.

5. Retinal microvascular alterations related to diabetes assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography
 Mahmoud Ahmed Kamal, Ragai Magdi Hatata, Khalid Abd Arhaman, Shaimaa Hamada Mostafa 
Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Egypt

Abstract: Aim: To investigate foveal avascular zone (FAZ) changes in eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: Cross sectional study of the eyes of diabetic patients with NPDR. All patients underwent medical history, best-corrected visual acuity measurement, slit-lamp and fundus examination. OCTA was performed in order to assess foveal avascular area and perimeter. Results: Seventy-two eyes of 40 patients and twenty eyes of 10 of control ones were included in this study. Among diabetic patients, 50% of cases had mild NPDR, 27.8% had moderate NPDR and 22.2% had severe NPDR. There was a significant progression between NPDR stages for FAZ grade. Conclusion: OCTA shows progressive increase of FAZ area.
[Mahmoud Ahmed Kamal, Ragai Magdi Hatata, Khalid Abd Arhaman, Shaimaa Hamada Mostafa. Retinal microvascular alterations related to diabetes assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography. Biomedicine and Nursing 2020;6(1): 39-42]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj060120.05.
Keywords: Retinal; microvascular; alteration; diabetes; assessed; optical; coherence; tomography; angiography

6. Constitutive-Clindamycin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates of nosocomial origin
Chika Ejikeugwu*, Gerald C. Nwoke, Chijioke Edeh

Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B. 053, Abakaliki, Ebonyi Stae,

Abstract: The resistance to antimicrobial agents among Staphylococci in both the community and hospital environment is an increasing problem that requires proper monitoring and containment. Erythromycin (a macrolide), clindamycin (a lincosamide) and streptogramin B are important antibiotics used clinically for treating bacterial-related infections; but the emergence of constitutive- and inducible-resistance mechanisms (especially target-site modification in target bacteria) in some S. aureus strains puts the efficacy of these antimicrobials at risk. When the mechanism of resistance is constitutive, the bacteria produce rRNA methylase (that compromises the antimicrobial properties of the antibiotic in vivo); but in inducible resistance, rRNA methylase is only produced in the presence of an inducing agent such as erythromycin. In this preliminary study, we phenotypically detected the occurrence of constitutive-clindamycin resistance (cMLSB) in 39 isolates of S. aureus of nosocomial origin. Antimicrobial susceptibility studies (antibiogram) were carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique and cMLSB phenotypes was detected using ‘D’ test. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexes were calculated for cMLSBphenotypes. Our results of antibiogram shows that the S. aureus isolates were highly resistant to over 50 % of the tested antibiotics especially to cloxacillin (100 %), bacitracin (92.31 %), (53.85 %), mupirocin (82.05 %) and oxacillin (89.74 %). Reduced susceptibility of the S. aureus isolates was also observed in clindamycin (89.74 %), a weak inducer and erythromycin (53.85 %), a potent inducing agent. A total of 6 (15.4 %) S. aureus isolates out of the 39 S. aureus isolates investigated phenotypically by ‘D’ test were confirmed as constitutive-clindamycin resistant phenotypes. With a MARI value of about 0.7 on average, the cMLSB phenotypes were multiply resistant to the tested antibiotics. Due to the importance of clindamycin (a weak inducer) as an alternative antibiotic for treating staphylococcal-related infections, it is important to preserve the efficacy of this antibiotic through proper detection of cMLSB phenotypes from clinical samples since in vitro susceptibility to clindamycin might lead to treatment failure especially if the invading bacterium is of constitutive-clindamycin resistance phenotype (that is producing rRNA methylase in vivo).
[Chika Ejikeugwu, Gerald C. Nwoke, Chijioke Edeh. Constitutive-Clindamycin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates of nosocomial origin. Biomedicine and Nursing 2020;6(1): 43-47]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj060120.06.
Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance, Clindamycin resistance, Antibiogram, Nosocomial infection, Nigeria

7. Effect of Workplace Spirituality on Work Attitudes among Nurses in the Hospital Setting
Mervat E. A. El Dahshan1 and Soha Mamdouh El-kholy2
1Assistant Professor of Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing / Menoufia University, Egypt.

2Lecturer of Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing / Menoufia University, Egypt.
Corresponding Author Email: 

Abstract: Healthcare organizations in the 21st century are fronting several challenges owing to globalization, rapidly moving customer marketplace, struggle, technology, economy, and diversity. Quality of care is a main health concern in the hospital setting. A work setting that supports professional nursing as well as the spirituality of nurses, discover in their labor may participate to quality of patient care. Aim: Explore the effect of workplace spirituality on work attitudes among nurses working in intensive care units at Shebin El-Kom teaching hospital. Subjects and methods: A descriptive correlational research design was utilized in the current study. Two questionnaires were applied, which are, Workplace Spirituality and Work Attitudes Questionnaires. All nurses (150) from intensive care units who were accessible at the period of data gathering and as well as agreed to be part of this study constituted the study sample. Results: Nearly about two thirds (64.66%) of participant nurses had high level of workplace spirituality, even though (15.33%) of them had low level of workplace spirituality. In addition, less than two thirds (60.6%) of participant nurses had high level of work attitudes, whereas, (15.3%) of them had low level of work attitudes. Conclusions: There was a highly statistically significant positive correlation (p=0.0001) between all dimensions ofworkplace spirituality and all dimensions of work attitudes except intention to quit. Recommendations: Planning and executing a comprehensive training program on the significance of maintaining workplace spirituality and delivering spiritual care specially in intensive care units and its effect on improving quality of care provided is essential.

[Mervat E. A. El Dahshan and Soha Mamdouh El-kholy. Effect of Workplace Spirituality on Work Attitudes among Nurses in the Hospital Setting. Biomedicine and Nursing 2020;6(1): 48-58]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj060120.07.
Keywords: Workplace Spirituality, Work Attitudes, Nurses.

8. Probabilistic PCA for texture modeling of Adaptive Active Appearance Models and its application for head pose estimation
Navid Mahmoudian Bidgoli 1, Abolghasem A. Raie 1, M. Naraghi 2
1. Electrical Engineering Department, Amir Kabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
2. Mechanical Engineering Department, Amir Kabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract: This paper suggests a 3D real-time monocular head pose tracker in which Active Appearance Models (AAM) are used to extract facial features. In order to improve texture model, two probabilistic approaches are proposed for principal component analysis in the presence of missing values and are evaluated. it is finally observed that applying Bayesian model results in improving model fitting. On the other hand, contrary to the common assumption in AAM, the gradient matrix must not suppose to be constant. In this investigation a method is suggested in which gradient matrix is adapted with new images during model fitting of video sequences as much as possible. In the next step, by means of suggested methods, operator’s head pose will be estimated by POSIT algorithm and by implementing this system on a People Bot robot, enhancement of the interaction between human and robot is presented in order to control the orientation of robot camera.
[Navid Mahmoudian Bidgoli, Abolghasem A. Raie, M. Naraghi. Probabilistic PCA for texture modeling of Adaptive Active Appearance Models and its application for head pose estimation. Biomedicine and Nursing 2020;6(1): 59-73]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj060120.08.
Keywords: Head pose estimation, Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), Probabilistic PCA, missing values, Active appearance models (AAM)

9. Microbiological and Physico-Chemical Assessment of Waste Water from Selected Food Industries in Port Harcourt and Snail Shell Treatment Potentials
Stanley H.O, N.N. Odu and Ekoh P.E.
University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Tel: +2348035431710, E-mail:

Abstract: Composite wastewater from 3 food industries (Pabod Breweries, Courdeau Catering Industry and Coca-cola bottling Company) were characterized microbiologically and physico-chemically before and after treatment using snail shell. The aim was to determine the microbial load and physico-chemical parameters of wastewater and also the effectiveness of snail shell in the treatment of the samples obtained. The samples were cultured on nutrient. Macconkey and Sabourad dextrose agar before and after treatment. Snail shells were collected from Choba market, Port Harcourt and washed properly. They were dried and grind to fine powder. Aseptic procedures were duly followed. For treatment, 5g, 15g, and 25g of ground snail shell were added to different test-tubes of wastewater samples of the same volume (20mls). The results of the parameters studied before and after treatment show a change in colour from cloudy to a colourless liquid. There was a reduction in the turbidity values which ranged from 423NTU to 158NTU, there was a reduction in the total solid and total suspended solid values from 16000mg/ml and 0.91mg/ml to 1320mg/ml and 0.61mg/ml respectively. There was an insignificant reduction in the total heterotrophic bacteria and fungi count from 13.7 x108cfu/ml to 7.7x108cfu/ml, 7.9x108cfu/ml and 7.1x108cfu/ml in response to the different masses of snail shell added. Some of the microorganisms identified includes, Escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas species, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Yeast. The research shows that snail shell can be used to rid wastewaters of solids but cannot be used alone in the removal of microorganisms since some microorganisms also use it as source of nutrient.
[Stanley H.O, N.N. Odu and Ekoh P.E. Microbiological and Physico-Chemical Assessment of Waste Water from Selected Food Industries in Port Harcourt and Snail Shell Treatment Potentials. Biomedicine and Nursing 2020;6(1): 74-79]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj060120.09.
Keywords: Wastewater, Food Industries, Culture Media, Treatment, Snail Shell.

10. Smoking Effects on Common Carotid Arteries Resistivity and Pulsatility Indices in Current Sudanese Smokers
Mustafa Z. Mahmoud 1, 2, K. Alzimami 3
1. Salman bin Abdulaziz University, College of Applied Medical Science, Radiology and Medical Imaging Department, P. O. Box: 422, Al-Kharj- Saudi Arabia.
2. Sudan University of Science and Technology, College of Medical Radiological Science, Fundamental Medical Radiologic Sciences Department, P. O. Box: 1908, Khartoum- Sudan.
3. King Saud University, College of Applied Medical Science, Department of Radiological Sciences, P.O. Box: 10219, Riyadh- Saudi Arabia.

Abstract: This study intended to evaluate the effect induced by the number of cigarettes consumed per day in the resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of the common carotid arteries, in Sudanese current smokers. A prospective study was performed with a group of 900 healthy adults who categorized after scanning to (26.7% smoked 1-4 Cigarettes/day, 16% smoked 5-9 Cigarettes/day, 53.3% smoked 10 and more Cigarettes/day and 4% were non smokers) and aged from 18 to 50 years (12 women, 888 men; mean age of all patients, 28±11 years). The common carotid arteries were examined using spectral Doppler ultrasonography to measure resistive index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) values in the vessels. Increase cigarettes' consumption per day in current Sudanese smokers significantly increases the RI (P-value < 0.0001) and PI (P-value < 0.0001) for the right and left common carotid artery respectively. Findings report that increasing the number of cigarettes smoked per day in current smokers; significantly influence common carotid arteries RI and PI with a linear positive correlation manner.
[Mahmoud MZ, Alzimami K. Smoking Effects on Common Carotid Arteries Resistivity and Pulsatility Indices in Current Sudanese Smokers. Biomedicine and Nursing 2020;6(1):80-84]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj060120.10.
Keywords: End Diastolic Velocity; Peak Systolic Velocity; Pulsatility Index; Resistance Index

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