BIOMEDICINE & NURSING


ISSN 2379-8203

Biomedicine and Nursing
Quarterly
Volume 7 - Issue 2 (Cumulated No. 25), June 26, 2021. (COVER) 

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1. Prognostic Value of Facial Nerve Antidromic Evoked Potentials versus Blink Reflex in Bell's Palsy
Nada Barakat Elhelaly (MSCh) 1, Nagat Mohamed ElGazzar (MD) 2, Amal Mohamed El Barbary (MD) 2, Doaa Waseem Nada (MD) 2
1Ministry of Health, Egypt

2Physical Medicine, Rheumatology & Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt
Email:elhelaly_nada@yahoo.com


Abstract: Background: Bell's palsy is acute, unilateral, idiopathic, peripheral facial nerve paralysis, it is one of the most common neurologic disorders affecting the cranial nerves. Patients with facial paralysis can have impaired interpersonal relationships and may experience profound social distress, depression, and social alienation, for this reasons early management is necessary to hasten the recovery process and minimize the risk of complications. Aim: This study aimed to compare between value of Facial Nerve Antidromic Evoked Potential and Blink reflex in prognosis of patients with early Bell’s palsy. Patients and Methods: This study included 30 patients with early diagnosed unilateral Bell’s palsy, the patients were divided into three groups (mild, moderate, severe) according to Yanagihara grading system. Results: There was statistically significant difference between different grades of facial paralysis as regard the electrophysiological findings (FNAEP, blink reflex) at onset of illness, after 4 and 6 months. There was statistically significant difference between different grades of facial recovery outcome regarding the electrophysiological findings (FNAEP, blink reflex) after 4 and 6 months. There was close relationship between LD and AD and clinical recovery rate (CRR) after 4 and 6 months. There was close relationship between blink reflex and clinical recovery rate (CRR) after 4 and 6 months. Latency difference (LD) and Amplitude difference (AD) are both helpful in detecting prognosis of bell’s palsy. Facial Nerve Antidromic Evoked Potential (FNAEP) is more sensitive than blink reflex in detecting the prognosis of bell’s palsy. Conclusions: Different grades of facial paralysis showed significant improvement in electrophysiological studies (FNAEP and blink refex) at end of study, the severity of clinical grades of paresis was statistically significantly decreased in the three groups at the end of the study but the improvement was more superior in the patients with mild and moderate facial nerve paralysis than severe cases. FNAEP is more accurate than blink reflex in detecting prognosis in patients with early Bell’s palsy.
[Nada Barakat Elhelaly, Nagat Mohamed ElGazzar, Amal Mohamed El Barbary, Doaa Waseem Nada Prognostic Value of Facial Nerve Antidromic Evoked Potentials versus Blink Reflex in Bell's Palsy Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(2):1-5]. ISSN2379-8211(print); ISSN2379-8203(online). http://www.nbmedicine.org 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070221.01.
Keywords: Facial Nerve Antidromic Evoked Potentials, Blink Reflex, Bell's Palsy


2. Comparative Study between Minipercutenous Nephrolithotomy versus Standard Percutenous Nephrolithotomy: Safety and Efficacy (RCTS)
Ahmed Abd Elgaleel Saleh1, Prof Dr. Mostafa Abd Elhameed Shamaa1, Prof Dr. Hamdy Mohammed Ibrahim2, Dr. Mahmoud Shoukry Eladawy2
1Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt
2Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Egypt

Email: drahmed.uro84@yahoo84


Abstract: Nephrolithiasis is a recurrent disease which has an influence on the quality of life. Technological advancement improved the kidney stone treatment. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is recommended by the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines to be the therapy of choice for large renal calculi (>20 mm) and also for smaller stones (10–20 mm). However, PCNL has several associated complications which may influence its efficacy. Standard PCNL have been modified and developed to decrease the adverse outcomes such as blood loss, renal damage and post operative pain, this new strategy called minimally invasive PCNL or mini-PCNL or mini Perc. Objectives: to assess the effect of using small instruments via a small sized tracts less than 20 French in reducing complications related to standard PCNL as bleeding, postoperative pain & hospital stay…..etc. and also to assess the stone free rates between the standard& mini-PCNL techniques. Patient & methods: from march 2016 till December 2018 This prospective study was conducted on 64 patients who were divided into 2 groups; patients who performed standard PCNL and those who performed mini-PCNL, equal number of patients was included in each group = 32 patients. Assessment of patients includes pre-operative, operative and post-operative assessment. Preoperative measures included history taking, physical examination and laboratory as well as radiological investigations. Intraoperative measures included: patient‘s position, type of anesthesia, radiation time operation time, vital signs, operative techniques, operative time, radiation time, energy used and intra-operative complications. Post-operative measures included vital signs, urine output, hematuria, CBC, serum creatinine, need for blood transfusion and other post-operative complications. Results: Both studied groups were matched in demographics and stone characteristics, also there was no significant difference regarding the preoperative investigations& data. Regarding operative assessment, there was no significant difference between the two groups except that patients of standard PCNL group tended to need the use of nephrostomy tube more than the group of mini-PCNL, on the other hand significantly longer operative times were recorded in mini-PCNL group than patients of standard PCNL group. There were also significant differences between the two studied groups regarding intra operative complications, including bleeding & Hb loss with more significant bleeding noticed in the standard technique. Postoperative complications included: post-operative pain, fever, sepsis, urinary leakage & 2ry hemorrhage. All were more in standard group than in miniperc group. Hospital stay, Mini-PCNL group spent less time in hospital after operation, than standard group, due to less post-operative pain &complications. However both groups showed insignificant difference as regard efficacy & stone free rates which were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: The findings in this study indicate that both standard PCNL and mini-PCNL had nearly the same efficacy in treatment of renal stones; however mini-PCNL was superior to standard technique as it had less intra operative & post-operative complications.
[Ahmed Abd Elgaleel Saleh, Mostafa Abd Elhameed Shamaa, Hamdy Mohammed Ibrahim, Mahmoud Shoukry Eladawy. Comparative Study between Minipercutenous Nephrolithotomy versus Standard Percutenous Nephrolithotomy: Safety and Efficacy (RCTS). Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(2): 6-15]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN2379-8203 (online).http://www.nbmedicine.org 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070221.02.
Key words: renal stones, PCNL, mini-PCNL.


3. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in five Fish Speciesin the Vicinity of Lake Chad, Baga, Nigerian Sector
Jonathan, B.Y.1, Maina, H. M.2., Barminas, J. T 2
Federal College of Freshwater Fisheries Technology, Baga, PMB 1060, Maiduguri, Borno State.

Chemistry Department Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State


Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the concentration levels of some Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs),dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT),  isomers  of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (alpha, beta, and delta HCH),  lindane, Endosulfan I, Endosulfan II, Endosulfansulphate, dieldrin, Permethrin , Heptachlor,  Lambda-cyhalothrinand aldrin,  in five fish species (Clariasgariepinus, Clariasanguillaris, Heterotisniloticus, Oreochromisniloticm, and Tilapia zillii) in the vicinity of Lake Chad, Baga, Nigerian sector. The OCP residues were analyzed using Gas Chromatography. The concentrations of OCP residues in fish species ranged between Endrin (0.0003 mg/kg) in T.zillii at Dunmba I. to delta HCH (4.677 ± 0.05 mg/kg) observed in T.zilli at Dumba 2 The dominant pattern of OCP residues accumulated by fishes followed this order, delta HCH>Endrin>Endosulfan I˃Permethrin˃ Endosulfan II. The accumulation pattern of OCP residues by the fishes was as follows T.zillii>C.gariepinus> H. niloticus>C.anguillari>O.niloticuss. The mean concentration levels of OCP residues in the fishes were within the permissible limits of FAO/WHO (2005).
[Jonathan, B.Y., Maina, H. M., Barminas, J. T. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in five Fish Speciesin the Vicinity of Lake Chad, Baga, Nigerian Sector. Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(2): 16-19]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN2379-8203 (online).http://www.nbmedicine.org 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070221.03.
Keywords: Organochlorine Pesticides, Pollutants, Water, Fish


4. Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Liver, Gills and Kidney of Heterotis niloticus as an Indicator of Aquatic Pollution from Lake Chad, Nigerian Sector.

Jonathan, B. Y1. Maina, H.M2 and Barminas, J.T2
1.Federal College of freshwaters Fisheries Technology, Maiduguri, PMB 1060,
Maiduguri, Borno State.

2.Chemistry Department, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, PMB 1076, Yola

Adamawa State


Abstract: The accumulation of cadmium(Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in the liver, gills and kidney of Heterotis niloticus (H. nitilocus) was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) at Dumba 1 and Dumba 2 of Lake Chad, Nigerian Sector. The aim was to determine the heavy metal accumulation in organ tissues (liver, gills and kidney) of H. nitilocus. The highest heavy metals concentration Fe: 175.50 +10.02 mg/kg was observed in the liver at Dumba 2, while Cd: 0.01mg/kg, was the lowest concentration also in the liver at Dumba 2. At Dumba 1, Fe showed the highest concentration and Cd was the lowest. Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb concentrations in the liver, gills and kidney of H. nitoticus are above the maximum permissible limits by WHO (1989) and FEPA (2003). The results obtained in this study indicated that, the organ tissues of H. nitoticus are good indicators of heavy metal pollution in the aquatic environment. Zn is the only heavy metal that is within the allowable standard limits by WHO (1989) and FEPA (2003). The liver gills and kidney of H. nitoticus was polluted with Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb. Its consumption by humans may cause health hazards. 
[Jonathan, B. Y. Maina, H.M and Barminas, J.T. Heavy Metal Accumulation in the Liver, Gills and Kidney of Heterotis niloticus as an Indicator of Aquatic Pollution from Lake Chad, Nigerian Sector. Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(2): 20-24]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070221.04.
Keywords: Accumulation, Heavy Metal, Heterotis niloticus, Organ tissues, Pollution


5. Current Status Of Sheep And Goat Pox Diseases In Ethiopia: A Seminar Paper Presented For The Course: Current Topics In Veterinary Microbiology (MVMB-7252)

Tolessa Ebissa

Advisor: Hika Waktole (Bsc, Msc, Assist. Professor)

Department Of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology And Public Health, Bishoftu, Ethiopia


Abstract: Ethiopia is endowed with large population of sheep and goats which supply milk, meat, and skin. Despite of these huge resource animal diseases is the major constraints that hinder the productivity. Sheep and goat pox disease is one of the major diseases caused by a genus of Capripox virus that cause detrimental effect on sheep and goat in many parts of the world. The objective of this review is to give insight on current status of the disease, its epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, control and challenges of sheep and goat pox diseases. The diseases are most commonly transmitted through direct contact, indirect contact and mechanically by the vectors. Up on entry of virus into the host it replicates in local tissue and spread to different parts of the body as viremia causing pox lesions on skin (hair less area), lung, liver and kidney. Generally, in endemic areas the morbidity and mortality rate reaches 1-75% and 5-10% respectively. But, the disease is more sever in lambs, kids and exotic breed causing mortality rate up to 100%. In Ethiopia, the disease is distributed in all parts of the country causing significant economic losses in the form of decreased meat and milk yield, damage to skin, abortion, cause of death of animals, restriction of trade and genetic improvement of the animals. Diagnosis of the diseases is depends on clinical signs, laboratory confirmation and post mortem examinations. Since the disease has no effective treatment control measure depend on use of antibiotics for control of secondary bacterial complications, vaccination, limitation of animal movement and their products. But still control and eradication is challenging due to vaccine failure, nature of virus to undergo recombination and interspecies infection. Therefore awareness should be created on the husbandry and herd management to minimize interspecies infection and further study should be conducted at genetic level for detection of change in the genome and development of effective vaccine. 
[Tolessa Ebissa. Current Status Of Sheep And Goat Pox Diseases In Ethiopia: A Seminar Paper Presented For The Course:Current Topics In Veterinary Microbiology (MVMB-7252). Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(2): 25-45]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070221.05.
Keywords: Capripox virus, Epidemiology, Ethiopia, Goat, Sheep, Sheep and goat pox and Vaccine


6. Species Diversity and Surveillance on Population Fluctuation of Bacterocera zonata and Bacterocera dorsalis Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Citrus orchards of Punjab, Pakistan

Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Asrar, Farhat Jabeen and Salma Sultana.

Department of Zoology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Abstract: Field experiments were conducted to study the species diversity and population fluctuation of B. dorsalis, B. zonata in three orchards of citrus at Nankana Sahib (Orchard I), Toba Tek Singh (Orchard II), and Sargodha (Orchard III), Punjab, Pakistan through methyl eugenol trap during April 2018 - April 2019. Maximum population of fruit fly (B. zonata andB.dorsalis) in three orchards was observed in the months August - September 2018 when maximum temperature was 40.52°C. B. zonata showed a significant positive correlation coefficient with seasonal average maximum temperature (0.629*, 0.695*, 0.716**) and significant positive correlation with minimum temperature (0.516*, 0.608*, 0.668*), morning relative humidity showed non-significant positive (0.116,0.165,0.151), afternoon humidity (0.108,0.113,0.124) while B. dorsalis also showed asignificant positive correlation with maximum temperature (0.591*,0.643*,0.673*), minimum temperature (0.460*,0.523*,0.595*)  and non- significant  positive correlation with morning relative humidity (0.132,0.215,0.181) andafternoon humidity (0.098,0.134,0.132) in three citrus orchard respectively.  It was found that incidence of B. zonata was higherwith occurrence of 82.71%-90.70% than B. dorsalis with 9.30%-17.29% occurrence.
[Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Asrar, Farhat Jabeen and Salma Sultana. Species Diversity and Surveillance on Population Fluctuation of Bacterocera zonata and Bacterocera dorsalis Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Citrus orchards of Punjab, Pakistan. Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(2):46-52]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN2379-8203 (online).http://www.nbmedicine.org 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070221.06.
Keywords: Citrus, fruit fly, species diversity


7. The effect of strength training on power, speed and flexibility in case of Woldia university third year male sport science department students
Bayih Ejigu, Getasew Abebaw
Faculty of Natural and Computational Science, Department of Sport Science, Woldia University, Ethiopia, P.O. Box. 400
geteshabebaw@gmail.com

Abstract: The objectives of this study was to investigate the effect of strength training on power, speed and flexibility of Woldia University third year male sport science department students. It also attempts to determine the effect of strength training on power, speed and flexibility. Method: In order to attain their purpose data was gathered from the sample population using simple random sampling method. The study was carried out on ten (10) male students in Woldia University third year male sport science department students. The data was collected by use of measurement of power, speed as well as flexibility by application of tests like vertical jump, 20 meter dash and sit and reach. The data was analyzed and compared with the help of statistical procedures in which arithmetic mean (mean), standard deviation (S.D) and paired t-test by using SPSS VERSSION 20 were employed. Result suggests that maximum strength training is strongly associated with dynamic power. In addition maximum strength training is strongly associated with speed but not flexibility. Hence the finding of this study indicates that before this time students do not exercise effective strength training to bring power, speed and flexibility. Based on the major findings above, the researcher concluded that by effective strength training practice students develop better power, and speed. But the result shows by effective strength training practice students do not develop flexibility or there is no significance change of flexibility.
[Bayih Ejigu, Getasew Abebaw. The effect of strength training on power, speed and flexibility in case of Woldia university third year male sport science department students. Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(2):53-60]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN2379-8203 (online).http://www.nbmedicine.org 7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070221.07.
Key words:- Strength training, power, speed, flexibility


8. Trends and practices of university students in regular physical activity program, in the case of Woldia University
Henok Mulugeta, Getasew Abebaw
Faculty of Natural and Computational Science, Department of Sport Science, Woldia University, Ethiopia, P.O. Box. 400
geteshabebaw@gmail.com


Abstract: The objective of this research was to assess the trends and practices of university students in regular physical activity program, the case of Woldia University. Method: the study was conducted using a sample of 45 students by using multi-stage sampling technique with the presence of purposive, stratified and simple random sampling technique (24 females; 21 males) that are attending third year in Woldia University, Faculty of natural and computational science. Results: university students were very well informed about the importance of regular physical activity and sport. Nevertheless, when it came to their involvement in various sporting activity, the questionnaire and observation checklist showed that almost 71% of university students do not generally spend their time participating in any regular physical activity/sport. On the other hand, there is a difference between male (61.54%) and female (38.46%) students in terms of participation on regular physical activity/ sport. The main problems that hindered the participation of university students in physical activities/ sport, almost 47% of students have insufficient time to participate with in academic reason and the others that most students do not participated with having lack of interest in regular physical activity/ sport (28.125%). Conclusion: Based on the university students thought that gave awareness to all departments, management of time with sport, make sport fields safe enough and fulfill enough amounts of fields and equipment for all types of sport will develop students participation in regular physical activity/ sport.
[Henok Mulugeta, Getasew Abebaw. Trends and practices of university students in regular physical activity program, in the case of Woldia University. Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(2):61-72]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070221.08.
Key terms: Physical Activity, Trend, Adherence mechanism


9. Monitoring and Evaluation of Trace Metal Concentrations in Tissues of Clarias gariepinus Caught from Orashi River, Niger Delta, Nigeria.
1George, Ubong, 2Inyang-Etoh Aniema, 3Bate, Garba Barde
1Department of Fisheries & Aquaculture, Akwa Ibom State University, Obio Akpa Campus
2Department of Fisheries & Aquaculture, Faculty of Oceanography, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
3Department of Environmental Science, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria
Email: ubonggeorge@aksu.edu.ng


Abstract: The levels of trace metals in the tissues of C. gariepinus from Orashi River, Niger Delta, Nigeria were investigated in order to ascertain the public health implication of consuming this edible species. Samples of C. gariepinus were collected for a period of for 12 months (between May 2016 and April 2017) from the upstream and downstream of the River and were analyzed using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry for the determination of heavy metals. From the results it was observed that trace metals bioaccumulated in the tissues of C. gariepinus with high concentrations in the intestine and muscles. Significant variations for upstream and downstream were observed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn (p<0.05) exception for Iron (p>0.05). The high concentration of Fe and Zn recorded during the study can be attributed to its abundance in the earth crust.Transfer factor index used in this study as a tool to assess the level of bioaccumulation in the studied species showed evidence of bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the tissues which calls for public health concern. However, the level of trace metal were above recommended tolerable limits for most of the metals when compared to world standards for safety of consumption of aquatic organism exception for Pb and Cr. The result of the studies implies that C. gariepinus caught from Orashi River is not safer as a food source for human consumption. However, constant monitoring of the river is emphasized in order to forestall cumulative effects of contamination which may arise in future if not checked. 
[George, U., Inyang-Etoh, A., Bate, GB.  Monitoring and Evaluation of Trace Metal Concentrations in Tissues of Clarias gariepinus Caught from Orashi River, Niger Delta, Nigeria.  Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(2): 73-80]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org.
 9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070221.09.
Keywords: Monitoring, Trace Metal Concentration, Tissues, Clarias gariepinus, Orashi River, Public Health


10. Dry Peas-2018 Variety: An Innovative High Yielding And Powdery Mildew Resistant Dry Pea, Rich Source Of Protein
Muhammad Amin, Ch. Muhammad Rafiq, Amer Hussain , Sadia Kaukab and Muhammad Shafiq
Pulses institute  Ayb Agricultral  Research Institute Faisalabad  Pakistan.
Corresponding author: Muhammad Amin
Email: aminpbg@gmail.com


Abstract: Dry pea-2018 is a bold seeded, powdery mildew, pea rust resistant and high yielding variety of dry peas (Pisum sativum L.). it is a cross between two genotypes (T-29 × T-37). The hybrid/cross work was started at area of Pulses Institute AARI Faislabad Pakistan in year 2002-03. It has used pedigree method of selection. The segregating progenies was evaluatedand advanced to F5 generation after fulfilling suitable standards. The pure line was routed from F5 source in during 2007-08 and completed evaluate in yield nursery during 2008-09 for further judgment.  It was evaluated for two years in station yield trials from 2009-10 to 2010-11 to meet its objectives before moving further to micro yield trials in 2011-12 to 2012-13.  It was evaluated in pathological, entomological studies, adaptation yield trials and micro yield trials in the same year for different parameters to complete. The variety dry peas-2018 produced more seed yield (10-56 %) in different yield trials over respective checks with a yield power of 3750 kg hectare-1. It come out first in 2011-12 and 2013-14 in micro and multi locational yield trials. This is bold seeded variety which suitable for commercial purpose. It has 25.3 % protein contents. Its flower size is large, white in color. It takes 75-80 days to flower (50 %) after sowing. Pod size larger than check variety Number 267 having 6.1-6.5 cm in length. The number of pod range 26-65 with 3-4 seeds pod-1 while no pod shattering. grain color is beige shiny, large shape.  Seed size is larger than check Number 267 having 170 gram 1000-seed weight. Its plant shape is semi erect with range of 80-160 cm in plant height; taller than check variety Number 267. The plant stem is light green in color. Number of primary branches ranged from 2-6 .it has secondary branches ranged from 7-10. Leaf color is light green, leaf size is large, pubescence is absent and large size leaflets. It indicates good results at seed rate of 60 kg hectare-1 with 15 cm plant to plant and 24-60-0 kg NPK hectare-1. Resistance against powdery mildew, pea rust, bold seeded good yield potential and good are major attributes of new dry pea variety “Dry peas-2018”.
[Muhammad Amin, Ch. Muhammad Rafiq, Amer Hussain , Sadia Kaukab and Muhammad Shafiq. Dry Peas-2018 Variety: An Innovative High Yielding And Powdery Mildew Resistant Dry Pea, Rich Source Of Protein. Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(2):81-86]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org  10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070221.10.
Key-Word: Pisum sativum; genotype; cross-breeding;  hybrid;  more  yielder variety; disease resistant; protein good; Pakistan; quality


11. A single case study on the impact of nutritional supplementation on cervical spondylosis
Marina Justan, Andranik Avanesian
Rheumatology Clinic, Ararat Hospital and Medical Center


Abstract: A 65-year-old female with a twelve year history of right-sided cervical spondylosis demonstrated an average 45.1% increase in pressure pain threshold meter readings in maximal tender points after two weeks supplementation with nutraceutical complex. In addition, total neck motion increased by 9.6 degrees (9.5%) in the sagittal plane, 7.1 degrees (8.7%) in the coronal plane and 2.8 degrees (1.7%) in the horizontal plane after two weeks of supplementation. Based on the results, no adverse events were reported with the consumption of dietary supplement. Essentially, supplementation of key nutrients were found to be an effective natural way to reduce both neck pain and stiffness, consequently avoiding any surgical interventions such as joint replacement or cartilage transplant surgeries.
[Justan M, Avanesian A. A single case study on the impact of nutritional supplementation on cervical spondylosis.Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(2):87-88]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070221.
Keywords: Joint; dietary supplement; cartilage; pain



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