ISSN 2379-8203


Biomedicine and Nursing
Volume 7 - Issue 3 (Cumulated No. 26), September 25, 2021. (COVER)

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1. Haematological Abnormalities Among HIV Positive Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment in a Nigerian State, South of the Niger Delta.
Aaron, U. U1*., Okonko, I. O.2 and Frank-Peterside, N.2
1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
2Virus Research Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt.
*Corresponding Author:


Abstract: Haematological indices abnormalities occur when one or more of your blood cell types are lower or higher than they should be, especially among people living with HIV. Two hundred confirmed HIV-positive subjects were randomly recruited from two health facilities in the Rivers States and sent to the laboratory immediately. These samples were assayed for full blood count using Mindray BC-6800 automated system. Study shows that the lowest and highest blood cell count/L for haematological indices were WBC 1.3-11.9 x109L, Lymphocyte 0.3-6.4 x109L, Monocyte 0.2-2.6 x109L, Granulocyte 0.1-5.1 x109L and Platelet 30-550 x109L. This study supports the assertion that HIV infection comes with its attendant health challenges, including anaemia, leukocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia.
[Aaron, U. U., Okonko, I. O. and Frank-Peterside, N. Haematological Abnormalities Among HIV Positive Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment in a Nigerian State, South of the Niger Delta. Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(3):1-7]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online).
1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070321.01
Key Words: Lymphocytes, Granulocytes, Monocytes, HIV Infection, Prevalence, Full Blood Count.


2. Evaluation Of The Effects Of Anthonotha macrophylla (Hardwood), Dialium guineense (Softwood) And Gas Oven On The Nutrient Composition And The Organoleptic Properties Of Smoked Dried Clarias gariepinus.
Okeke, P. A.1, Adibe, A. C.2, Ezenwenyi, J.U.3, Ogbonnaya, H.F.4, And Moghalu, K.5
1, 2, 4 &5 Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi   Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
3 Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
Corresponding Author:


Abstract: A comparative evaluation of the effect of using Anthonotha macrophylla (Hardwood), Dialium guineense (Softwood) and gas oven on the nutrient composition and organoleptic properties of smoked dried Clarias gariepinus. Thirty (30) table size C. gariepinus species with mean weight of 500gm were procured, killed, eviscerated, rinsed with clean water and cut into steaks. They were shared into three batches as treatments A, B and C respectively. Each treatment was immersed in 10% brine solution for 30 minutes. Treatments A and B were  smoked with charcoal of Anthonotha macophylla (Hardwood) and Dialium guineense (Softwood) for 24 hours, and  treatment C with gas oven for 12 hours. They were allowed to cool at ambient temperature. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the proximate nutrient composition of the fish samples from the three treatments as determined by A.O.A.C. (2000) method. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) among the sensory parameters (texture, taste, aroma and flavour), using the 9 – point hedonic scale, except for the flavour. Treatments A and B had higher score of ash than those smoked with treatment C. Although crude fat content of treatment C of 25.46% was higher than those smoked with treatments A and B with 20.19% and 21.19% respectively. The research showed that A. macrophylla(Hardwood), D. guineense (Haedwood)  and gas oven sources of energy are suitable for smoke drying fish without negative effects on nutrient composition and organoleptic qualities. Smoking with hardwood is preferred than others as shown by this study.   
[Okeke, P. A., Adibe, A. C., Ezenwenyi, J.U., Ogbonnaya, H.F., And Moghalu, K. Evaluation Of The Effects Of Anthonothamacrophylla (Hardwood), Dialium guineense (Softwood) And Gas Oven On The Nutrient Composition And The Organoleptic Properties Of Smoked Dried Clarias gariepinus. Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(3):8-13]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN2379-8203 (online). 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070321.02.
Key words: Clarias gariepinus, Hardwood and Softwood, Nutrient composition, Organoleptic qualities, Smoked dried


3. Prospect Of Leaf Extracts On The Performance And Blood Profile Of Monogastric – A Review
1*Alagbe, J.O., 2Shittu, M.D and 3Eunice Abidemi Ojo
1 Department of Animal Nutrition and Biochemistry, Sumitra Research Institute, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Animal Production & Health, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Oyo State, Ogbomosho, Nigeria
3 Department of Agronomy, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Oyo State, Oyo State, Nigeria


Abstract: Medicinal plants are used to prevent, treat and promote healthy life in human and animals, their medicinal value are due to the presence of bioactive chemicals or secondary metabolites (phytochemicals) making it more suitable for animals with benefits of low cost and total safety. Phytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants and they perform a multiple biological activities such as: antibacterial, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, antioxidants, antifungal, hepato-protective, hypolipidemic and antiviral properties. The efficacy of phytochemicals in plants depends on their organic composition (tannin, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponin, phenols and alkaloids), method of extraction or processing, harvesting procedure, soil type, geographical location and level of maturity. Plants are also found to be loaded with minerals, vitamins and other nutrients needed for the growth and development of animals.
[Alagbe, J.O., Shittu, M.D and Eunice Abidemi Ojo, Prospect Of Leaf Extracts On The Performance And Blood Profile Of Monogastric – A Review. Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(3):14-20]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070321.03.
Keywords: Medicinal plants; leaf extract; phytochemicals; chemicals; nutrients.


4. Performance, Haematology And Serum Biochemical Parameters Of Growing Grass Cutters (Thyronoyms Swinderianus) Fed Phyllantus Amarus And Pilogstigma Thonngii Leaf Meal Mixture As Partial Replacement For Soya Bean Meal
1*Alagbe, J.O., 2 Agubosi, O.C.P and 3 Liu, S.D
1, 3 Sumitra Research Institute, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Animal Science, University of Abuja, Nigeria
*Orcid number: 0000-0003-0853-6144;
*Corresponding Author


Abstract: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance, haematology and serum biochemical parameters of growing grasscutters (Thrynomys swinderianus) fed Phyllantus amarus (PAM) and Pilogstigma thonngii leaf meal (PTM) mixture as partial replacement for soya bean meal. A total of 35 weaned grasscutters of mixed sex between 5-6 weeks with an average weight of 436.1 and 437.0 g were divided into five groups of 7 animals each and randomly assigned to 5 experimental diets each animal served as a replicate in a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments include a control diet with no PATML, T2 (10.0% PATML), T3 (20.0 % PATML), T4 (30.0 % PATML) and T5 (40.0 % PATML) respectively. Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the experiment which lasted for 12 weeks. The data obtained was used to evaluate the growth, haematological parameters (PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH , MCHC, WBC and its differentials ), serum biochemical indices (Albumin, globulin, total protein, creatinine, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, ALP, AST and ALT) and fatty acid composition. Average weight gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were influenced by the dietary treatments (P<0.05). Haematological and serum parameters were significantly (P<0.05) different among the treatments and were within the normal physiological range for grasscutters. It could be concluded that replacement of soya meal with 40 % PATML does not have any deleterious effect on the performance and blood profile of the animal.
[Alagbe, J.O., Agubosi, O.C.P and Liu, S.D. Performance, Haematology And Serum Biochemical Parameters Of Growing Grass Cutters (Thyronoyms Swinderianus) Fed Phyllantus Amarus And Pilogstigma Thonngii Leaf Meal Mixture As Partial Replacement For Soya Bean Meal. Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(3):21-31]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070321.04.
Keywords: Weaner grasscutters; Phyllantus amarus; Pilogstigma thonngii; haematology


5. A Review Of Neospora Caninum And Neosporosis
Wubshet Nasser (Dvm)
Advisor:  Dr. Dinka Ayana (DVM, MVSc, Associate Professor)
Debre Zeyit, Ethiopia


Abstract: Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misidentified as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in dogs in 1984 and the description of the new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of cattle and dogs worldwide. Abortions and neonatal mortality are a major problem in livestock operations, and neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle. Although antibodies to Neospora caninum have been reported, the parasite has not been detected in human tissues. Thus, the zoonotic potential is uncertain. This review is focused mainly on the epidemiology and control of neosporosis in cattle. The role of wildlife in the life cycle of Neospora caninum and strategies for the control of neosporosis in cattle is discussed. Neospora caninum infection have been reported in the United States, Australia, Europe, America china, Costa Rica, Czech republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Korea, Mexico, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom,  Vietnam, Uruguay, Tanzania, South Africa and Ethiopia. Major economic loss due to neosporosis is reproductive failure in cattle in many countries. There are also some indirect losses associated with professional help and expenses for establishing a diagnosis, rebreeding, possible loss of milk yield, and replacement costs. Control strategies focus on reducing exposure and preventing transmission of the parasite. These may include improving farm biosecurity, reproductive management, testing and culling and vaccination. 
[Wubshet Nasser (Dvm). A Review Of Neospora Caninum And Neosporosis. Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(3):32-45]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online).  5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070321.05.
Keywords: control, economic impact, epidemiology, neosporosis


6. Avian Spirochetosis and Streptococcosis outbreak investigation 
Author:  Leweyehu Basie 
Livestock resource development and health care office Bichena, North West Ethiopia

Tele phone No: +251-912-425-251


Abstract: Avian Spirochetosis and streptococcosis were confirmed in small enterprise poultry farms in Bichena town, North West Ethiopia in 2019; however description of clinical or pathological signs was not carried out by both livestock keepers and field-based animal health workers before. A study was therefore conducted to investigate and describe clinical signs and pathological lesions associated with suspected spirochetosis and streptococcosis cases in Bichena. It involved history taking, clinical examination, necropsy and bacteriological examinations. Necropsy examination of 3 avian was performed. Slice of liver, spleen, kidney, lung, heart and heart blood and moreover, hemorrhagic intestine, intestinal ingesta and cecal core were collected and sent to Bahir Dar regional veterinary laboratory under  preservation in sterile phosphate saline with and without 50% glycerol, and 10% formalin as required and necessary. Epidemiologically, the population at risk was 1150, with 651 and 630 sick and dead chickens and morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates of 56.61%, 54.78% and 96.77% respectively. This figure implies that almost all sick chickens had already died as a direct result of the outbreak.
[Leweyehu Basi, Avian Spirochetosis and Streptococcosis outbreak investigation. Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(3):46-48]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070321.06.
Keywords: Avian, spirochetosis, streptococcosis, outbreak


7. Drug non-compliance among different types of psychiatric patients
Masood Moghadamnia
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran 
٭Corresponding author: Masood Moghadamnia, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. E-mail:


Abstract: Non-compliance in medication denotes the failure or refusal of an individual to take the prescribed medications as recommended by the medical practitioner. Compliance is adhering to the prescription of oral or other forms of medication as stipulated by the medical practitioner. Medication compliance affects intervention outcomes. Therefore, this study seeks to examine medication compliance among psychiatric patients. The majority of the participants have anxiety disorders, followed by depression, and obsessive compulsive disorder(OCD). Anxiety and depression disorders were the most common disorders between non-compliance patients. Most patients with non compliance medication were in the anxiety disorders and depression disorders groups. most of patient were unemployed or housewife that we include both groups as an un-employed group.
[Masood Moghadamnia. Drug non-compliance among different types of psychiatric patients. Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(3):49-55]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN2379-8203 (online). 7.doi:10.7537/marsbnj070321.07.
Keywords: Non-Compliance Medication, Anxiety disorder, Depression, Psychiatric patients


8. Effect of fat source, energy level and enzyme supplementation and their interactions on broiler performance
Alaeldein M. Abudabos* and M.M. Abdelrahman 
Department of Animal Production, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences
King Saud University, P. O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


Abstract: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of replacing typical soybean oil (SBO) in broiler’s diet with a less expensive commercial blend (Kofat) (KOF), using two levels of metabolizable energy (ME) and supplementing Tomoko (TOM) enzyme on broilers performance. Eight dietary treatments, 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design, were used in this experiment. A total of 200-(0) day (d) old male (Ross 308) chicks were distributed among 40 cages with 5 replicate cages per treatment. Cumulative feed intake (FI) was not influenced by fat source, energy level or TOM supplementation (P >0.05). For the period from 1 to 30 d of age, energy x enzyme interaction was significant for body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P<0.01; P <0.001). TOM supplementation had a positive effect on the low energy diet while it had a negative effect on the normal energy diet with respect to BWG and FCR. Tom enzyme was able to restore the nutritional value in the low energy diet. Fat source (SBO vs. KOF) had no influence on performance of broilers during the experiment period. It is recommended to feed KOF as a source of fat, lower the ME of the diet in the starter and finisher periods by 100 kcal/kg and to supplement the diet with TOM enzyme at a rate of 0.05%. 
[Alaeldein M. Abudabos and M.M. Abdelrahman. Effect of fat source, energy level and enzyme supplementation and their interactions on broiler performance. Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(3):53-60]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online).  8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070321.08.
Keywords: Soybean oil, Kofat, energy level, Tomoko, broilers, performance


9. Assess the Awareness of Evidence Based Practice among Nurses at Tertiary care Hospital
Aftab Ahmed Memon1, Parveen Akhter 2,  Zohaib Hassan Memon3 and Awais Ahmed4

1. Peoples Nursing School Liaquat University of Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan
2. Assistant Professor PNS, Faculty of Community Medicine & Public Health Science Liaquat University of Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan
3. Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
4.Staff Nurse, WAPDA Hospital Hyderabad, Sindh.


Abstract: Background: Evidence-Based Nursing a process of making clinical decisions on the basis of the best available evidence supported by research, their clinical experience and patient preferences in the context of available resources. Material and Methods: A descriptive Cross-sectional study carried out at LUMHS Hyderabad / Jamshoro for three months after the approval of synopsis. Participants in the study filled questionnaires which comprises in two sections: the  demographic and EBP-related data. For this analysis, the demographic data questionnaire was developed by the authors and included: age, gender, educational achievement, current work  role, overall years of experience and period and duration of  nursing profession. Results: The study included a total of 350 subjects which consisted of 100 males (28.6%) and 250 females (71.4%) with mean age 30±. A significant relation was found between knowledge about evidence based nursing practice(P value =<0.001)and many variables of interest. Conclusion: Evidence based practice among nurses has been inadequate in tertiary care facility of Hyderabad. Most of the nurses felt difficulty in providing nursing care and facing  stress during nursing care delivery. Lack of facilities and manpower at public hospital affect the evidence based practice.
[Aftab Ahmed Memon, Parveen Akhter ,  Zohaib Hassan Memon and Awais. Ahmed. Assess the Awareness of Evidence Based Practice among Nurses at Tertiary care Hospital. Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(3):64-73]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online).  9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070321.09.
Keywords: Evidence-based nursing, Tertiary Care Centers, Patient Preference, Surveys and Questionnaires


10. Preferences and attitudes of Orthodontic Patients on use of Social Media in Saudi Arabia
Dr. Rabia Bilal
Associate Professor, Department of Orthodontics
College of Dentistry, Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Postal Address: Dr. Rabia Bilal
College of Dentistry, Qassim University, Mullaydah, PO Box 6700, Buraydah, Qassim 51452
Phone No: 00966-536159613


Abstract: Background: The objective of the study was to find out how orthodontic patients use social media sites to share their treatment-related experiences and attitudes, whether orthodontic patients use the Internet and social media sites as a source for orthodontic information and to investigate the expectations patients have from orthodontists regarding in-corporation of social media applications that would help in improving collaboration with the use of orthodontic appliances. Materials and Methods:E-Questionnaire was shared on various social media accounts. The questionnaire included questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, availability of social media accounts, whether the patients follow any oral health related accounts; and, whether their reliability on those accounts depends on the number of followers, the comments, before and after photos or the reliability of the account owner. Results: Of the surveyed sample, 86.80% of males said that they have never shared their orthodontic experience online, 87.20% of females said that they rely on the information if the owner of the account was an orthodontist. A small percentage of patients (23.4%) said they rely on information available to them on social media. The reason of reliance was that the owner of that social media account is an orthodontist. Only 6% of the participants stated they followed the account because of the number of followers. Discussion: Twitter was the most used social networking site among orthodontic patients, followed by Instagram. The majority of patients had never shared their Orthodontic experience on social networking sites and most patients would like their healthcare providers to communicate with them, providing the information via videos.
[Rabia Bilal. Preferences and attitudes of Orthodontic Patients on use of Social Media in Saudi Arabia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2021;7(3):74-79]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online).  10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj070321.10.
Key words: Social media, orthodontic treatment, twitter, Instagram, face book


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