ISSN 2379-8203


Biomedicine and Nursing
Volume 8 - Issue 1 (Cumulated No. 28), March 25, 2022.
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1. Evaluation of intravenous Acetaminophen on pain and peritoneal irritation signs in patients with acute surgical abdomen in the Emergency department
Mahbob Pouraghaei, Payman Emamverdi Zadeh
Emergency Medicine Department, Emam Reza hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran.
* Corresponding author: Mahbob Pouraghaei (

Abstract: Introduction: Acute surgery abdomen was one of the most common causes of emergency surgery in worldwide and a major cause of severe abdominal pain and sometimes harrowing and intolerable patients are presenting to the emergency department. The duty of every physician especially Emergency physician reduction of pain of patients that is considered as a major priority in new emergency medical treatment. The aim of this study was evaluation of effect IV Acetaminophen   on abdominal pain in patients referred to emergency ward. Methods: In a double blind clinical trial that performed in emergency department of Tabriz University of medical science on patients with abdominal pain, effect IV Acetaminophen   on abdominal pain in patients referred to emergency ward evaluated. Results and conclusion: 155 of patients were male and 85 of them were female. Mean age of patients in acetaminophen group was 45.45 ± 20.47 and in Morphine group was 50.99 ± 19.40 year(P=0.0054).  Mean of pre injection pain score in male was 8.69 ± 1.29 and in female patients was 9.17 ± 1.27(P=0.848). Mean of pre injection pain score in Morphine group patients was 8.80 ± 1.35 and Mean of post injection pain score in Morphine group patients was 4.06 ± 1.71(P<0.001).  Mean of pre injection pain score in acetaminophen group patients was 8.92 ± 1.25 and Mean of post injection pain score in acetaminophen group patients was 6.46 ± 2.25(P<0.001). Mean of post injection pain score in acetaminophen group patients was significantly higher than patient's of Morphine group (P<0.001). Significant liner direct correlation was found between pre injection and post injection pain score in the studied patients (P<0.001 and R=0.520).
[Pouraghaei M, Emamverdi Zadeh P. Evaluation of intravenous Acetaminophen on pain and peritoneal irritation signs in patients with acute surgical abdomen in the Emergency department. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(1):1-6]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 1. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080122.01.
Keywords: Abdominal Pain, IV Acetaminophen(Apotel), Morphine, Accuracy

​2. Permeability of rhyncholphylline across human intestinal cell in vitro
Bo Ma1, Huibo Xu2, Ming Li1, Guibo Sun1*, Xiaobo Sun1*
1 Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 151, Malianwa North Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100193, PR China.
2 Jilin Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1745, Works and Peasants Road, Chaoyang District, Changchun City, 130021, PR China

Abstract: Aim: Rhynchophylline (Rhy) is the major component of Uncaria species, which is used in Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. However, its oral bioavailability has not been known. This study aims to investigate the intestinal permeability and related mechanisms of Rhy using cultured human epithelial Caco-2 cells. Methods: The cytotoxicity of Rhy on Caco-2 cells was evaluated with MTT assay. The effect of Rhy on the integrity of Caco-2 cell monolayer was assayed with transepithelial electrical resistance. The permeability of Rhy across cell monolayer was assayed by measuring Rhy quantity in received side with HPLC. The effect of Rhy on the expression of P-glycoprotein and MDR1 was performed with Western blot and flow cytometry, respectively. Results: In the concentration of Rhy, which did not produce toxicity on cell viability and integrity of Caco-2cell monolayer, Rhy crossed the monolayer with velocity 2.76~5.57×10^-6 cm/sec and 10.68~15.66×10^-6 cm/sec from apical to basolateral side and from basolateral to apical side, respectively. The permeability of Rhy was increased by verapamil, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, or rhodamine 123, a P-glycoprotein substrate. Rhy revealed an induction effect on P-glycoprotein expression in Caco-2 cells. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the low permeability of Rhy in intro, and suggest that P-glycoprotein may underlie the mechanism. 
[Bo Ma, Huibo Xu, Ming Li, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun. Permeability of rhyncholphylline across human intestinal cell in vitro. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(1):7-16]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080122.02.
Keywords Rhyncholphylline; P-glycoprotein; permeability; Caco-2 cells

​3. 3-Dimensional Analytical Solution for Lunar Descent Scheme
Ibrahim Mustafa Mehedi 1, Takashi Kubota 2, Ubaid M Al-Saggaf 1

1. Department of ECE, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2. The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Abstract: Lunar and Mars landing is a crucial part of any exploration mission. Its importance is manifested by the considerable interest in the past couple of decades. Solution of lunar descent can be either numerical or analytical. Numerical solutions are iterative and computationally demanding and some of them might not be suitable for on-board implementation. On the other hand, analytical solutions are not complex and much more attractive for the same purposes. All the present analytical solutions schemes are two dimensional considering only altitude and down range to describe the reference trajectories of a lunar descent. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a complete 3-dimensional analytical solution for the reference trajectory which is crucial for a precise landing of a lunar spacecraft. Comparisons are made by simulated responses between numerical and analytical solutions. Detail mathematical derivations are presented in this paper as well. 
[Ibrahim MM, Takashi K, Ubaid MS. 3-Dimensional Analytical Solution for Lunar Descent Scheme. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(1):17-25]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online).  3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080122.03.

Keywords: Lunar descent; Numerical solution; Analytical solution; 3-D modeling

​4. Biochemical effects of chronic administration of chloroquine on some vital tissue of Swiss albino mice
Muheet A Saifi*
Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University
Riyadh-11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of chloroquine on some vital tissues of mice. Healthy adult male Swiss albino mice weighing between 35-45 gm were used for this study. Treated group was exposed to 200 mg/kg body weight/day of chloroquine phosphate given orally for 24 days. Control animals were given distilled water for the same period. Gastrocnemius muscle, spleen and brain tissues were biochemically investigated post-treatment. The results obtained showed a significant increase in protein levels of the gastrocnemius muscle (P<0.001), brain (P<0.001) and spleen (P<0.05). The total lipid content of both muscle and brain showed a highly significant increase (P<0.001) while the cholesterol level was increased significantly (P<0.05) only in spleen. Ascorbic acid also exhibited a significant increase (P<0.001) in muscle. Thus the use of choloroquine for longer periods requires strict monitoring as chronic usage may lead to the development of many detrimental effects in the host.
[Saifi, MA. Biochemical effects of chronic administration of chloroquine on some vital tissue of Swiss albino mice Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(1):26-30]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080122.04.
Key words:   Chloroquinine; toxicity; Mice; spleen; brain

5. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Stress Distribution in Implant Supported Dentures: A Review
Zhang Nan, Liu Qingmei, Hao Xiaoxin, Chang Wenxiao
Department of Stomatology, Shanxi Academy of Medical Sciences, Taiyuan, Shanxi, 030032, China
Corresponding Authors:

Abstract: Stress distribution is a key factor that affects the success of implant prostheses. In the past 3 decades, 3-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA) has been used widely to predict stress distribution in implant denture systems and surrounding tissues. By understanding the application and limitations of 3D FEA, the clinician will be able to interpret the results of the studies on stress distribution and extrapolate these results to dental practice. This article reviews the current status of 3D FEA applications in implant supported denture studies and discusses findings from these studies in relation to implant supported dentures.
[Zhang N, Liu Q, Hao X, et al. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Stress Distribution in Implant Supported Dentures: A Review. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(1):31-39]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online).  5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080122.05.

Keywords:  3-dimensional finite element analysis; implant supported dentures; stress distribution

6. Continuous Venovenous Hemodiafiltration for Hyperlactatemia Caused by Telbivudine in a Patient with Chronic Hepatitis B

Yan-Hong Wang1*, Ben-Quan Wu2, Hui Liu3
1,2,3Department of Medical Intensive Care Unit, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong province, People’s Republic of China

Abstract: Though telbivudine has been reported causing myopathy and elevating creatine kinase (CK), there is still few reports on telbivudine and hyperlactatemia in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Here we report the first case of hyperlactaemia during telbivudine treatment. A 26-year-old Chinese origin man has been received telbivudine antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B since 3 July, 2011, and found the CK was 68 U/L before the anti-viral treatment. After 3 months of therapy, he generally felt nausea and vomited frequently. The CK checked in local clinic was up to 222 U/L (upper limit of normal 170 U/L). However, he did not visit his doctor or stopped telbivudine treatment until he felt sore in muscles all over the body. By then, the level of CK had increased to 4151 U/ L just one year after the use of telbivudine. Even after withdrawal of telbivudine, myalgia exacerbated and CK decreased deadly slowly. Constant myolysis was developed into hyperlactatemia, finally he recovered by successfully continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. The case findings first suggested that telbivudine might lead to high level of CK and hyperlactatemia could occur if telbivudine was not stopped immediately when CK increased evidently. Besides, it is emphasized that the serum CK and lactate acid should be monitored closely during the treatment of telbivudine.
[Yan-Hong Wang, Ben-Quan Wu, Hui Liu. Continuous Venovenous Hemodiafiltration for Hyperlactatemia Caused by Telbivudine in a Patient with Chronic Hepatitis B. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(1):40-44]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online).  6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080122.06.
Keywords: chronic hepatitis B, telbivudine, creatine kinase, hyperlactatemia

7. Investigation The Impact Of Trading Halt On Liquidity And Price Volatility
Fereshteh Shahbazin
Master of Financial Management, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract: This research has the comparative inductive methodology which is applied according to the objective. It is also among the library studies in terms of data collection. This study is conducted for trading halt periods of each company in statistical population of companies listed on Tehran Stock Exchange during 2006-2011. Sampling method is purposive and approximately 150 companies are selected as the sample. It has 4 variables including the equity turnover, price volatility, market depth, and Bid-ask Spread. Student's t test indicates that the research variables including the equity turnover, market depth, and Bid-ask Spread have a significant relationship with trading halt. Only the price volatility has no significant relationship with trading halt. Furthermore, Friedman test indicates that ranking the research variables according to descending order includes the equity turnover, Bid-ask Spread, price volatility, and market depth. According to the results of factor analysis (PLS), with one unit increase in equity turnover, Bid-ask Spread, and market depth, the rate of trading halt is reduced to 0.263, 0.456, and 0.591, respectively. Moreover, the price volatility has no effect on trading halt. 
[Fereshteh Shahbazin. Investigation The Impact Of Trading Halt On Liquidity And Price Volatility. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(1):45-52]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online).  7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080122.07.
Keywords: Equity turnover, price volatility, market depth, Bid-ask Spread

8. Review On Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
Fikadu Bekele DVM , MVSc1; Manyazewal Anberber DVM, MVSc2, PHD, Ass. Professor; Dese Kefyalew DVM, MVSc3
1 and 2 College of Agriculture and Veterinary Science Department of Veterinary Laboratory Technology
3 Jimma University School of Veterinary Medicine

Abstract: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), primarily affects cattle. Transmission is via concentrate feed rations contaminated with infected meat and bone meal (MBM). In addition to cattle, other food animal species are susceptible to BSE and also pose a potential threat to human health as consumption of infected meat products is the cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, which is invariably fatal. In the UK, farmed and free ranging deer were almost certainly exposed to BSE infected MBM in proprietary feeds prior to legislation banning its inclusion. Therefore, although BSE has never been diagnosed in any deer species, a possible risk to human health remains via ingestion of cervine products. Chronic wasting disease (CWD), also a TSE, naturally infects several cervid species in North America and is spreading rapidly in both captive and free-ranging populations.
[Fikadu Bekele DVM , MVSc; Manyazewal Anberber DVM, MVSc, PHD, Ass. Professor; Dese Kefyalew DVM, MVSc.Review On Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(1):53-62]. ISSN 2379-8211(print);ISSN2379-8203(online).  8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080122.08.
Keywords:  mad cow disease, BSE, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, prion

9. Co-Precipitation Synthesis of Fe2+1-xCo2+xFe2O4 Nanoparticles: Structural Characterization and Magnetic Properties
Hassan Soleimani1, Noorhana Yahya1, Noor Rasyada Ahmad Latiff1, Maziyar Sabet2, Lee kean Chuan1, Jamshed Amighian3
1. Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia.
2.Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia.
3. Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81744, Iran

Abstract: Cobalt ferrite was known as a promising magnetic material for various applications. This nano-composite (Co2+xFe2+1-xFe3+2O4) was synthesized via co-precipitation route, by varying the Co/Fe ratios (Co/Fe = 3, 1, and 0). The structures and magnetic properties of nano-composites were analyzed by XRD and VSM.  As deduced from the XRD line broadening, the average crystallite size of the samples was found to be in the range of 13.0-15.0 nm and contain fcc structure with smaller lattice constant as the Co/Fe ratios increases. FESEM and TEM images revealed the morphology of the samples, which consist of irregular shapes of diameter in the range of 9.0-15.0 nm. Magnetic properties measurement shows that sample S11 with the highest Co/Fe ratio has the highest value of saturation magnetization (Ms) of 65.23 emu/g.  On the other hand, increase in the concentration of cobalt ions improves the remanence magnetization (Mr) and coercivity (Hc) of the same sample to 12.18 emu/g and 238.92 Oe, respectively. It is demonstrated that the higher substitution ratio of cobalt in Co2+xFe2+1-xFe3+2O4 has successfully improve the magnetic properties of the samples.
[Soleimani H, Yahya N, Ahmad Latiff N. R, Sabet M, Lee C, Amighian J. Co-Precipitation Synthesis of Fe2+1-xCo2+xFe2O4Nanoparticles: Structural Characterization and Magnetic Properties. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(1):63-70]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080122.09.
Keywords: Cobalt ferrite; co-precipitation; nano-composite; magnetic properties

10. Representation of Women as the ‘Second Sex’ in The Great Gatsby
Masomeh Bozorgimoghaddam 1, Carmen Zamorano Llna2, Naser Moeen3
Masomeh Bozorgimoghaddam
Master in English language and literature, Dalarna University, Sweden
Carmen Zamorano Llna

Assistant professor in English, Dalarna University, Sweden
Naser Moeen
Master in English language and literature Lecturer ,Ilam University, Iran

Abstract: This article is an interpretation of The Great Gatsby novel through a Feminist perspective. F. Scott Fitzgerald sets his famous novel The Great Gatsby in 1922 in America. The society which is described by the author is a patriarchal society which positions men as superiors to women. The author privileges men in his novel and constructs the female characters as what the feminist critic Simone De Beauvoir terms the “second sex”. In Fitzgerald’s novel the world is a masculine world. The author, the narrator, and the title of the novel are males, and in agreement with what Simone De Beauvoir argues about men’s superiority toward women, in the novel men are the citizens and the natives of the world but women are the “others”; this means that the world is drawn in such a way that being a man does not cause any peculiarity, but women are strangers, so women’s subjective selves always are under the critical gaze of a male. This essay will argue that in The Great Gatsby, whatever situations the main three female characters – Daisy, Myrtle, and Jordan – have in the society and also during their own lives, they are represented as inferiors to men. Women’s situations like being as a single girl, a wife, a mistress, and a beloved, which are defined in relation to men, will be discussed in this essay.   
[Masomeh Bozorgimoghaddam , Carmen Zamorano Llna, Naser Moeen. Representation of Women as the ‘Second Sex’ in The Great Gatsby. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(1):71-76]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online).  10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080122.10.
Keywords: F. Scott Fitzgerald, Inferior, Patriarchy, Second Sex, Superior, The Great Gatsby, Women, Subjective selves.

11. Estimation of Genetic Effects Controlling Different Plant Traits in Gossypium hirsutum under CLCuV epidemic Condition
Abdul Majid Khan1, Amir Shakil1, Ikram Bashir1

1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

For Correspondance

Abstract: A study was conducted in the experimental area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad during year 2013 to estimate the genetic effects controlling different plant traits in Gossypium hirsutumunder epidemic CLCuV condition following North Carolina Design II. The genotypes comprised of four non- Bt males (CIM-1100, CIM-506, FH-942 and FH-900) and five Bt females (FH-113, FH-114, MNH-886, AA-703 and IR-3701). Twenty crosses along with parents were sown in two replications under RCBD. The mean squares were significant for all traits which is the indication of both additive and non-additive genes controlling the characters but non-additive genes were more important because, variance due to dominant genes were higher than additive genes. Among testers FH-900 showed best performance against CLCuV, number of locules per boll and seed cotton yield. CIM-1100 performed well against boll weight, fiber strength and fiber fineness. CIM-506 was good general combiner for plant height, number of sympodial branches and GOT. Maximum boll number, seed index and fiber length was shown by FH-942. Among lines, MNH886, FH-113, IR-3701 and FH-114 exhibited best general combiners against many traits. Hence these parents may be preferred for hybridization program to improve majority of characters. Hybrids FH-113 × FH-942, MNH-886 × CIM-1100, MNH-886 × FH-942, IR-3701 × CIM-506, AA-703 × CIM-1100, FH-114 × FH-942, FH-114 × CIM-1100 and MNH-886 × FH-900 were best specific combiners for different traits. These results indicated that in order to improve various traits, different hybrids may be exploited for hybrid crop development. 
[Abdul Majid Khan, Amir Shakil, Ikram Bashir. Estimation of Genetic Effects Controlling Different Plant Traits in Gossypium hirsutum under CLCuV epidemic Condition). Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(1):77-82]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 11. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080122.11.
Key Words:  Gossypium hirsutum, Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), Genetic effects, General and Specific Combing ability, North Carolina Design II.

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