BIOMEDICINE & NURSING
Biomedicine and Nursing
Volume 8 - Issue 2 (Cumulated No. 29), June 25, 2022. (COVER)
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1. Assessment of Diminazine Aceturate and Isometamidium Chloride Efficacy in Assosa and Bambasi Districts of Benishangul Gumuz Region, Western Ethiopia
Birhanu Eticha1, Mussie H/Melekot2, Yechale Teshome3
1 Benishangul Gumuz region bureau of agriculture and natural resource, e-mail: email@example.com; P.O. Box 30, Assosa, Ethiopia
2 & 3 Bahir Dar University, College of agriculture and environmental sciences, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Abstract: Field trial was carried out from December 2018 to February 2019 with the objective to estimate the efficacy of diminazine aceturate and isometamidium chloride against most prevailing trypanosome spp in Assosa and Bambasi districts of Benishangul Gumuz region. An abbreviated 28-day field protocol based on treatment of naturally infected cattle was used to assess the efficacy of trypanocidal drugs. Accordingly, treatment failure was detected in 19/30(63.3%) of cattle treated with 3.5mg/kg body weight diminazene aceturate 14 days post treatment. Trypanosoma congolense accounted for 17/19(89.5%) of DIM treatment failure while T. vivax and T. brucie together accounted for only 2/19 (10.5%). Re-treatment of T. congolensepositive cattle that had failed DIM treatment at 3.5mg/kg body weight with double dose (7mg/kg) had still resulted in a treatment failure of 6/17(35.3%), however, re-treatment of both T. vivax and T. brucie positive cattle with double dose of DIM cleared the parasites. Similarly treatment failure was observed in 8/30(26.7%) and 8/22(36.4%) of cattle treated with isometamidium chloride at dose of 0.5mg/kg body weight 14 and 28 days post treatment resulting in cumulative treatment failure of 16/30(53.3%). Trypanosoma congolense accounted foremost treatment failure for the two drugs. Assosa district (Megele 38) had higher treatment failure when compared to Bambasi district (Nebar keshimando) for the two trypanocidal drugs; however, no statistically significant variation was observed (P>0.05). Failure of trypanocidal drug efficacy was found to be a constraining factor to control the disease using curative and prophylactic drugs. Hence, vector control using different approach has to be given due attention to mitigate the problem.
[Birhanu Eticha, Mussie H/Melekot, Yechale Teshome. Assessment of Diminazine Aceturate and Isometamidium Chloride Efficacy in Assosa and Bambasi Districts of Benishangul Gumuz Region, Western Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(2):1-7]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org 1.doi:10.7537/marsbnj080222.01.
Keywords: Benishangul Gumuz, Diminazene aceturate, Drug efficacy, Isimetamidium chloride
1 Geremew Batu, 1Hawi Jaleta and 2Yomifan Moti
1Wollega University School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health Sciences, P.O. Box: 395, Nekemt, Oromia, West Ethiopia
2Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma, Oromia, South West Ethiopia, P.O. Box: 307
Corresponding author: Geremew Batu, Wollega University School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health Sciences, P.O. Box: 395, Nekemt, Oromia, West Ethiopia.
Corresponding Author: Geremew Batu; G-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Wollega University School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical and Health Sciences, P.O. Box: 395, Nekemt, Oromia, West Ethiopia
Abstract: Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of economic importance that is widely distributed in Sub-Saharan African and contributes significantly to cattle morbidity and mortality. This review was aimed to elucidate the epidemiology, control measures and economic impacts of CBPP. The disease is characterized by its ability to transmit through direct contact, long incubation period, possibility of early excretion of mycoplasmas (up to 20 days) before apparition of clinical sings during the course of the disease and after recovery in “lungers” up to two years. Closeness of contact, intensity of infection and the number of susceptible animals determine the rate of spread of the disease. The post mortem lesions of CBPP include thickening and inflammation of lung tissues. Diagnosis requires the isolation of the etiological agent. Treatment is recommended only in endemic areas because the organisms may not be eliminated and carriers may develop. CBPP has been causing significant economic losses on the agricultural sector and the national economy of Ethiopia. It accounts for a loss of over 8.96 million US dollars per year. Control of CBPP offers a number of challenges as a result many developing countries in Africa are still struggling with this disease.
[Geremew Batu, Hawi Jaleta and Yomifan Moti. Review on Epidemiology, Control Measures and Economic Impacts of Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Its Status in Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(2):8-14]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org 2. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080222.02.
Keywords: Cattle, CBPP, Economic loss, Ethiopia, Epidemiology
3. Cattle embryos development through in vitro techniques using thyroxine hormone as a media supplement
Aman Kumar Singh, Prakash C, Rohit K, A. Santra and Subrata K. Das*
Dairy Biotechnology Lab, Eastern Regional Station, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute,
Kalyani -741235, West Bengal, India.
Dairy Biotech Lab.
Eastern Regional Station, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute
Tel. Phone. +91 33 2582 8264 (O), Cell No. +91 9433361567
Fax. +91 33 2582 8264
Abstract: The present study was conducted to produce cattle embryos through in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture by supplementing culture media with thyroxine hormone (T4). Cattle ovaries were collected from slaughter house and brought to the laboratory within 3-4 h in normal saline maintaining 30-35 ºC. Immature oocytes were collected from visible surface follicles (3-8 mm) in the aspiration media (TCM-199 + DPBS + 3 mg/ml BSA + 50 mg/ml gentamycin) by 19 g hypodermic needle. The COCs were washed thoroughly 5-6 times in washing media (TCM-199 + 10%FBS + 27 mg/ml sod. pyruvate + 50 mg/ml gentamycin sulfate) and matured in-vitro for 24 h in maturation media (TCM-199 + 10% FBS + 5 µg/ ml FSH-P + 0.33 mM sodium pyruvate + 50 µM β-mercaptoethanol + 50µg/ml gentamicin sulfate) supplemented with thyroxine hormone (T4) with three different concentrations (viz.20, 50 and 100 ng/ml) at 38.5 ºC in CO2 incubator with maximum humidity. After 24 h oocytes were allowed for fertilization with in vitro capacitated sperms in Fert-BO media at 38.5 ºC in CO2 incubator. After 15-18 h of sperm-oocyte co-incubation, the cumulus cells were washed off from the oocytes by gentle pipetting in washing medium. The oocytes were then washed 1-2 times with RVCL media and cultured in 100 µl RVCL medium supplemented with T4, and cultured for cleavage. After 48 h of culture cleavage was checked and further co-cultured with oviductal cells for development. In the present study the cleavage rate and morula rate were significantly higher in the treatment group as compared to control group. The mean percentage of cleavage rate was 23.80 ± 2.04 in control group. The highest mean percentage of cleavage rate was 52.59 ± 5.93 in 100 ng/ml treatment group. From the present study it could be concluded that thyroxine hormone may have some role to increase the cleavage rate after fertilization.
[Aman Kumar Singh, Prakash C, Rohit K, A.Santra and Subrata K. Das. Cattle embryos development through in vitrotechniques using thyroxine hormone as a media supplement. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(2):15-18]. ISSN 2379-8211(print);ISSN 2379-8203(online). http://www.nbmedicine.org 3. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080222.03.
Key words: Cattle, oocyte, embryo, thyroxine, IVF
4. Bioaccumulation of iron metal by some fungal species
Tiwary Avanti (M.phil (Biotechnology)
Corresponding Authors - Dr. Jadhav S.K. (email- Shailesh_07@sify.com)
Dr. Tiwari K.L. (email- email@example.com)
School of Studies in Biotechnology
Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G.) PIN-492010
Abstract: During the last two decades, extensive attention has been paid on the management of enviromental pollution casual by hazardous material such as heavy metal. Decontamination of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, Co, Ni, Ag), in the soil and water around industrial plants has been a challenge for long time. Present studies deal with the removal of iron (Fe) metal from aqueous solutions has investigated in this study using spectronova-qunat merk instument. The innovative process involved the abstaction of iron metal ions onto fungal biosorbents, followed by the application of bioaccumulation. When compared with commercialion-exchanege method, precipitation, reverse osmosis, fungal derivatives generally perform well. Fungal biomass largely depends on parameters pH, temperature, incubation periods and effects of some pretreatments. Basically this research paper provides a selective overview of present scenario of biosorption studies carried out on some promising fungal biosorbents (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum), which could serve as an economical means.
[Tiwary Avanti. Bioaccumulation of iron metal by some fungal speciest. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(2):19-28]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org 4. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080222.04.
Key words: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Bioaccumulation, Biosorption, Heavy metals Microbial biomass, Metal removal.
5. Emergence Of Gram Positive Bacteria As A Causal Agents Of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis
Engy Yousry El sayed* , Eman Mohamoud Ezzat**, Rania Ali Amr***
*Ass. Prof. Of Internal Medicine Department, Ain Shams University
** MD internal medicine
*** Ass. Prof. Clinical pathology Faculty Of Medicine, Ain Shams University
Abstract: It has been suggested that the profile of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis has changed, and severe infections caused by resistant bacteria species have started to emerge. The aim of this work was to evaluate the recent changes in bacteria causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients. In this study, records of laboratory and ascitic fluid cultures data of 100 cirrhotic patients, with SBP, in the retrospective period from October 2007 to October 2008 and 120 patients with SBP in the prospective period from October 2011 to October 2012, were subjected to laboratory tests, ascitic fluid sent for bacterial culture along with routine biochemical and cytological examination were done. Results showed that the overall culture positivity rate was higher in prospective study period 39(32.5 %) versus retrospective period 35(35 %) p>0.05 and the main bacterial isolates were E.coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.Gram positive bacteria (GPB) were isolated more frequently in the prospective than retrospective period 16 (41% ) versus 10 (28.6%). Conclusion: There is an emergence of Gram positive bacteria as a causal agents of SBP.
[Engy Yousry El sayed , Eman Mohamoud Ezzat, Rania Ali Amr. Emergence Of Gram Positive Bacteria As A Causal Agents Of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(2):29-33]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org 5. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080222.05.
Key words: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, gram-positive bacteria and infection
6. Occurrence and Severity of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst. on Azadirachta indica Tree in University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Implications for Sustainable Harvesting and Replacement
Adedeji, G. A., A. A. Aiyeloja and G. E. Omokhua
Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Abstract: More than 40% mortality of the 35 years old Neem trees (Azardirachta indica) used as avenue tree in University of Port Harcourt (UNIPORT) has been observed. This phenomenon is strongly believed to have been caused by Ganoderma lucidum – a fungus which causes root rots, cracking of the root and stem barks, heartwood rots, die-back of the branches, deformation of crown and eventually death. Therefore, occurrence and severity of Ganoderma lucidum on the Neem trees from Delta axis road to Ofrima/Senate roundabout were examined for 3 years. Epidemiological observations showed that two genera of Ganoderma appeared early in the years when there was rain and gradually reduce with decreasing rainfall intensity. High occurrences of G.lucidum were observed between April and July for the 3 years of study. Over the years, there were progressive increase in the damaging impact of G. lucidum in all trees and the total mortality associated with its occurrence was greater than 40% at the end of 2013. Occurrence-severity indicated that A. indica trees were affected mostly by decays of roots and stem butts that were associated with tree age (old), soil contact and moisture. Occurrence of Ganoderma lucidum in living trees is recognized as a distinct disease and is strongly associated with declining of A. indica among ornamental trees in University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. A disk obtained from one of the dying tree was still hard enough without any visible xylem decay, stain, tunnel and discolouration to produce furniture and other indoor wood products for the University community. This study suggests that the trees could be selectively harvested for furniture while replacement with non-vulnerable and fast growing tree like Gmelina arborea is advised before complete harvesting is carried out.
[Adedeji, G. A., A. A. Aiyeloja and G. E. Omokhua. Occurrence and Severity of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst. on Azadirachta indica Tree in University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria: Implications for Sustainable Harvesting and Replacement. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(2):34-39]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org 6. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080222.06.
Keywords: Azardirachta indica, Ganoderma lucidum, indoor wood products, Pathogens, Diseases, wood fungus.
Oyewole, I.O 1*, Anyasor, G, N 2, Aina, O3, Ogunnowo, A.O 4, Sorinwa, B 5, Abraham, B.6
1, 5, 6 Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, 2 Department of Biochemistry, 4 Department of Basic sciences, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, Nigeria. 3 Department of Biochemistry, The Nigerian Institute for Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.
Corresponding Author*: Name of Corresponding Author: Oyewole, I.O
Complete Postal Address: Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Babcock University, P.M.B. 21244, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria. Tel:+123-803-8371-309; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abstract: In lieu of the reports on re-emergence of chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium falciparum, the choice of the drug for the treatment of malaria especially in the endemic areas may not be ruled out. Here, we reported the anti-oxidative status and histology of some vital organs in mice infected with P. berghei and subsequently treated with chloroquine. The study was a 4 by 10 model design as follows: the control non-infected, the infected (IN) and chloroquine-treated infected (CqTI) / non-infected (CqTNI) mice. The challenged animals were subjected to five days treatment after parasitemia was established using Gemsa stain. Assays were conducted on the animals following standard procedures. The results showed that parasitemia and Chloroquine induced oxidative stress in (IN) and (CqTNI) groups. This was indicated by significant (p<0.05) changes in the antioxidant defence indices viz superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein concentration. There were also alterations in the architectures of some vital organs such as liver, kidney and heart of the experimental groups compared with control. The subsequent treatment of the infected group with Chloroquine (CqTI) restored some of the indices altered during the infection to a normal level. This study shows that malaria and its radical treatment in vivo can induce oxidative stress which in turn can cause injury to the host tissues particularly during chronic administration of Chloroquine-an implication for prolong intake of the drug.
[Oyewole, I.O, Anyasor, G, N, Aina, O, Ogunnowo, A.O, Sorinwa, B, Abraham, B. Parasitemia and antimalarial-induced oxidative stress and histological alterations in infected mice. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(2):40-48]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org 7. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080222.07.
Key words: Plasmodium berghei, antimalaria, oxidative stress, organs, mice
8. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Exclusive Breast Feeding Among Lactating Mothers in Bedelle Town, Southwestern Ethiopia: Descriptive Cross Sectional Study
Tsedeke Wolde1*, Gadisa Diriba2, Ababa Wakjira2, Genet Misganu2, Girma Negesse2, Habtamu Debela2, Tadesse Birhanu3 and Eyasu Ejeta4
1Department of Public Health, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Wollega University, P.O. Box 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia
2Department of Nursing, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Wollega University, P.O. Box 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia
3School of Veterinary Medicine, Collage of Medical and Health Science, Wollega University, P.O. Box 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia
4Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medical and Health Sciences, Wollega University, P.O. Box 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Abstract: Breast feeding contributes to reduced infant morbidity and mortality due to diarrhea, respiratory or ear infections and other infectious diseases even though it remains a challenging due to lack of knowledge mothers. There is only limited information on exclusive breastfeeding practices in urban settings of Ethiopia especially in Bedelle town, Illubabor Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia. Thus, this study was aimed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice related with exclusive breastfeeding among lactating mothers in study area. A community based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 220 lactating mothers who had a child aged less than 24 months from April to May, 2013 using a structured interviewer questionnaire. Systematic random sampling was used selected the study participants and descriptive statistics was carried out using SPSS for windows version 20.0. The majority of mothers, 91.8% knew the importance of exclusive breastfeeding and 87.3% mothers were had good attitude and strongly agree that the exclusive breastfeeding is advantageous for infants aged less than six months. Only 43.6% of mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months after delivery. This study indicated better understanding and perception of the importance of exclusive breastfeeding and poor practice to exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months postpartum among urban mothers. Thus, health care providers and decision makers should be comprehensively addressed on adverse work related issues to improve exclusively breast feeding practices in the study community.
[Tsedeke Wolde, Gadisa Diriba, Ababa Wakjira, Genet Misganu, Girma Negesse, Habtamu Debela, Tadesse Birhanu and Eyasu Ejeta. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Exclusive Breast Feeding Among Lactating Mothers in Bedelle Town, Southwestern Ethiopia: Descriptive Cross Sectional Study. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(2):49-56]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org 8. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080222.08.
Keywords: Attitude, Exclusive Breast Feeding, Lactating Mother, Knowledge, Practice
9. Population structure and regeneration pattern of Debregeasia salicifolia (Roxb. ex D. Don) Rendle in degraded site of Nainital, Kumaun Himalayan
Bharat Giri Gosain
Department of Botany, DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand 263002, India
Abstract: The present investigation is aimed to carry out population structure of Debregeasia salicifolia and dominated plant species in landslide degraded area of District, Nainital (Uttarakhand). Study was conducted during the year 2012-13, following stranded methodology. A total 5 studies site was selected between 1938-2200m asl. The dominant plant species is Debregeasia salicifolia. Canopy cover was recorded 50-70%. Samplings has maximum density 17840 (ind/ha) followed by trees 980 (ind/ha). The maximum average relative density (57.690) was for sampling followed by trees (37.83) and seedlings (4.47). The maximum diversity index (H) was 0.179 for sampling and minimum was 0.017 for trees. The maximum concentration of dominance (Cd) was 0.360 and minimum 0.004 was recorded for seedling.
[Bharat Giri Gosain. Population structure and regeneration pattern of Debregeasia salicifolia (Roxb. ex D. Don) Rendle in degraded site of Nainital, Kumaun Himalayan. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(2):57-62]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org 9. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080222.09.
Keywords: Debregeasia salicifolia; population structure; dominant; Nainial degraded site
10. Ethno-medicinal Properties and the Phyto-chemical Analysis of Some Plants Used in Treating Arthritis and Typhoid Fever in Nigeria, West Africa
Taiye Remilekun Fasola1,2, Adekunle Odunayo Adejuwon2,3, Comfort Eyitayo Ehinmola1
1Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Information Technology & Applied Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria
3Department of Biological Sciences (Microbiology), College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Oduduwa University, Ipetumodu, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Abstract: Reported cases of arthritis and typhoid fever have been on the increase in Nigeria, West Africa. This has led us into the ethno-botanical and phytochemical studies of some plants used in the treatment of these diseases in African traditional practice. Twenty plants were screened for phytochemical compounds. The habits of the test plants were 90% trees, 50% herbs, 40% shrubs and 20% climbers. The plant parts used were 100% leaves. All the tested plants contained high levels of varied concentrations of saponins, alkaloids and flavonoids compared with their levels of tannins and carotenoids. Further studies on these secondary metabolites should shed more light into the African trado-medical claim on these plant parts. This study will be of significance and value in therapeutics and drug development.
[Taiye Remilekun Fasola, Adekunle Odunayo Adejuwon, Comfort Eyitayo Ehinmola. Ethno-medicinal Properties and the Phyto-chemical Analysis of Some Plants Used in Treating Arthritis and Typhoid Fever in Nigeria, West Africa.Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(2):63-69]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org 10.doi:10.7537/marsbnj080222.10.
Key words: Plants; phytochemicals; screening; typhoid fever; arthritis
11. Application study of antioxidant nutritional therapy in the treatment of Hashimoto's thyroid disease
Huaijie Zhu1,2,3*, Yucui Zhu 2, Li Zhao2,3 , Tiffiany Eschweiler3,Xiaonan Zhu3
1* Department of Endocrinology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China. 2. Department of Dermatology in Columbia University, New York, USA.
3. Jacksun Easy Biotech Inc. New York, USA.
* Corresponding Author, Huaijie Zhu, MD.2316 Gunther Avenue, Bronx, New York, US, 10469
Tel. 917-635-2608 (USA), 150-3711-5732 (China), Jacksun689@gmail.com
Abstract: Hashimoto's thyroid disease is an autoimmune disease with unclear causes and is not easily treated. Due to the increase of anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) and anti-thyroid gland peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) in Hashimoto's thyroid disease, the hypothyroidism caused by reduced thyroxine always destroys the patient's health and life span. How to find an effective treatment plan and measure is an urgent topic in the treatment field of medicine and biology. This study reports a case of a confirmed patient with Hashimoto's thyroid disease, treated with oral thyroxine-Premierol for more than a year, and the anti-thyroxine antibody remained continuously elevated. After 80 days of treatment with the "antioxidant nutrition therapy" developed by Dr. Huaijie Zhu, the anti-thyroid antiperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) and anti-thyroid antiperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) decreased to 43.78% and 44.06%, respectively. This is a therapeutic effect that Hashimoto's thyroid disease has never been seen since it was discovered. It is hoped that this research report can inspire and promote medical and biologists to expand the research field of disease treatment, to accelerate the rapid development of Hashimoto's thyroid disease therapy and contribute to the early treatment of refractory autoimmune diseases. [“Application study of antioxidant nutritional therapy in the treatment of Hashimoto's thyroid disease”. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022; 8(2): 70-76]. ISSN 2379- 8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). http://www.nbmedicine.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080222.11.
Keywords: Antioxidant Nutritional therapy, Hashimoto ́s Thyroiditis, Thyroid nodule, Autoimmune Disease, Hypothyroidism, Nutrition, SOD, Antioxidant, Free radical. Endocrine disease.
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