ISSN 2379-8203

Biomedicine and Nursing
Volume 8 - Issue 3 (Cumulated No. 30), September 25, 2022. 

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1. Concurrent and Many Diseases That Affect Skin of Equines
Abebe Mequanent

University of Gondar College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Gondar, Ethiopia, P.o. Box:  196

Abstract: Habronemiasis is a condition that affects many horses. The disease has worldwide in distribution. Adults normally inhabit the equine stomach and eggs and larvae are passed in the feces and are ingested by maggots of intermediate hosts. Many diseases of skin also affect the skin of horse, donkey and mule such as dermatophilosis, dermatopytosis/ring worm, and tick infestation.
[Abebe, M.A. Concurrent and Many Diseases That Affect Skin of Equines. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022;8(3):1-7].ISSN2379-8211(print);ISSN2379-8203(online). 01. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080322.01.
Key words:- Disease, equines and Skin

2. Review on Multiple Diseases of Cornea in Dog and Cat
Abebe Mequanent
University of Gondar College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Gondar, Ethiopia, P.o. Box:  196

Abstract: Multicourse result corneal disease of pet animals such as; corneal opacity, focal edema, diffuse edema, keratic precipitates, So, causes of corneal opacities, which are often seen in various combinations. Specific causes of focal edema include focal corneal epithelial dysfunction. The cornea is the clear, shiny membrane, which makes up the surface of the eyeball. Cornea is transparent, densely innervated, a vascular, and the major refractive structure of the eye. A healthy cornea achieves and maintains transparency due to the organization of constituent cells and collagen fibers, as well as its relatively dehydrated state. A complete ophthalmic examination is essential to identify related ocular and systemic abnormalities that may have led to the corneal opacity. Correct interpretation of corneal changes is critical for diagnosing corneal disease as well as many other ocular and some systemic diseases. Therefore, appropriate diagnostic tests and prompt initiation of optimal therapy are required to maximize the chance of saving vision, producing a comfortable globe and, occasionally, saving the patient’s life. Treatment depends on whether there is a corneal abrasion, corneal ulcer, or descemetocele present. Corneal abrasions generally heal within 7-10 days. Medication is used to prevent bacterial infections and to relieve pain. Antibiotic drops are only effective for a few minutes so they must be applied frequently; ointments last a bit longer but still require application every few hours. It is suggested that an antibiotic preparation be instilled in the eye 4 to 6 times per day.
[Abebe, M.A. Review on Multiple Diseases of Cornea in Dog and cat. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022; 8(3):8-19]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 02. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080322.09.
Key words: Cornea, disease, edema and ulcer

​3. Chromatographic And Pharmacognostic Characterisation Of Important Drugs (Unani Herbal) For Their Identification
Bharat Pandey*1, Devaki Nandan2, Kamal K Pande3
1Department of Chemistry, SBS Govt. P. G. College Rudrapur (Udham Singh Nagar), India
2Department of Chemistry, Govt. P. G. College Champawat, Uttarakhand, India,
3Principal S.B.S. Govt. P.G. College, Rudrapur, (Udham Singh Nagar), India

Abstract: Standardization and quality control are the key factors in regulating the theraputic efficacy of herbal drugs. There are various standard pharmacognostic and chemical methods for checking an identity and the quality of single herbal drugs. Present communication highlights macro and micro-morphological characteristics, powder studies, histochemical tests, micro-chemical tests, physico- chemical constants, chromatographic profile and therapeutic uses; which can be useful for checking genuiness of herbal drugs. 
[Bharat Pandey, Devaki Nandan, Kamal K Pande. CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND PHARMACOGNOSTIC CHARACTERISATION OF IMPORTANT DRUGS (UNANI HERBAL) FOR THEIR IDENTIFICATION. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022; 8(3):20-24]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 03.doi:10.7537/marsbnj080322.03.
Keywords: Herbal drug, Chromatographic profile, Pharmacognostic, Chemical methods

4. Burdens and Coping Strategies among Caregivers having Children with Disabilities at Special Needs Schools 
Azza El-Sayed Ali Hegazy1 & Hanem Awad Mekhamier2 & Huwida Hamdy Abd El-Monem3& Nadia Ahmed El-Adham4
1&3Pediatric Nursing& 2&4Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, El-Fayoum University, Egypt.

Abstract: Background: Raising a child with a disability has been recognized as a major source of burden and distress to family and their caregivers. Aim: This study aimed to assess the burdens and identify the coping strategies among caregivers of children with disabilities. Study design: A descriptive study design was utilized in this study. Setting: The study was implemented in three governmental mixed special needs schools in El-Fayoum city that were selected randomly. Sample: A multistage stratified sampling techniques was used in recruiting children and their caregivers. The study sample consisted of 360 caregivers of children with disabilities. Tools: Three tools for data collections consisted of, First tool: A structured interviewed questionnaire, Second tool:  Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) scale and Third tool: COPE Inventory scale. Results: The study findings revealed that 65.3% of caregivers had moderate to severe burden level while 21.9% had severed burden levels. About 53.9% had moderately coping strategies, while 30.6% had low coping strategies. Conclusion: This study concluded that the majority of caregivers had moderate to severe burdens level, and a minority of them had highly coping strategies. Regarding the total coping strategies, the studied caregivers' religious coping, active coping, and substance use were statistically significant independent positive predictors. Recommendations: The current study recommended that providing support and educational programs for caregivers directly contributes to the needs of caregivers and leads to improving the care provided to children with disabilities, minimizing their parents' burden levels as well as improving their coping responses.
[Azza El-Sayed Ali Hegazy & Hanem Awad Mekhamier & Huwida Hamdy Abd El-Monem & Nadia Ahmed El-Adham. Burdens and Coping Strategies among Caregivers having Children with Disabilities at Special Needs Schools. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022; 8(3):25-36]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). doi:10.7537/marsbnj080322.04.
Keywords: Burdens, Coping Strategies, Caregivers, Disabled Children & Special Needs

5. Bionomics of Batocera rufomaculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in mulberry farms of Jammu and Kashmir (India)
Altaf Hussain Mir1, Abdul Ahad Buhroo2, Mohammad Zahoor Chishti3
1P. G. Programme in Bioresources, Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006, India
2Post Graduate Department of Zoology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190006, India
3Centre of Research for Development, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190006, India

Abstract: Investigations on the bionomics of Batocera rufomaculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in mulberry farms of Jammu and Kashmir state (India) demonstrated an annual life cycle with an adult emergence period of over four months from May to September; adult emergence started in May, peaked in June and ended in August. Adults required maturation feeding period of 14.00±0.561 days. Sexually mature beetles mated promiscuously and copulation period averaged 60.50±6.23 seconds. Females deposited eggs singly into the bark of host plants with an average daily and life time fecundity of 1.27 and 148.66 eggs respectively. Eggs hatched in 10.20± 1.25 days and larvae developed through 9 instars in 253.35±4.37 days. Ultimate larval instar pupated in the pupal cells, made by the ultimate larvae; adults emerged from the pupal cells after 27.5±1.35 days through circular emergence holes. Larvae as well as adults caused damage to the host plants; the latter compensated the damage caused by adults to some extent by sprouting lateral buds while as grubs caused irreparable damage and lead the host plants to death. The extent of damage caused to the host plants is also reported in the paper. 
[Mir AH, Buhroo AA, Chishti MZ. Bionomics of Batocera rufomaculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in mulberry farms of Jammu and Kashmir (India). Biomedicine and Nursing 2022; 8(3):37-48]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 05. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080322.05.
Keywords: Bionomics; Batocera rufomaculata; Mulberry farms; Jammu and Kashmir

6. Lingua-Cultural Comparative-Contrastive Analysis Оf Phraseological Units Of Cults  In English, Kazakh Аnd Russian Languages
Rysbayeva  Guldarkhan
Candidate of Philologic Sciences, professor
Kazakh state women’s teacher training university, Republic of Kazakhstan

Erhozhina Shattygul

Candidate of Pedagogic Sciences, associate professor

Kazakh state women’s teacher training university, Republic of Kazakhstan

Sadenova Aigul

Doctor of Philological Sciences
Kazakh National University named after Al-Farabi, Republic of Kazakhstan

Ultebaliyeva  Gulnara
Doctor of sciences, associate professor
Kazakh National University named after Al-Farabi, Republic of Kazakhstan

Sarbalina Arailym

PhD student
Kazakh state women’s teacher training university, Republic of Kazakhstan

Abitzhanova Zhanar

Candidate of Philological Sciences, associate professor
Kazakh state women’s teacher training university, Republic of Kazakhstan

Abstract: Thе prеsеnt rеsеаrch is dеvоtеd tо thе cоmpаrаtivе-cоntrаstivе аnаlysis оf thrее nоn-rеlаtеd lаnguаgеs: Еnglish, Kаzаkh, Russiаn lаnguаgеs. Hеrе, wе triеd tо rеvеаl thе linguа-culturаl pеculiаritiеs in thе usаgеаnd dеvеlоpmеnt оf thе mоst bеаutiful аnd cоlоurful еxprеssiоns, rеаdy-mаdе units оf lаnguаgе - prоvеrbs аnd sаyings. Prоvеrbs аnd sаyings usuаlly are fоrmеd аnd аppеаr in lаnguаgеs whilе dеscribing thе nаtiоnаl chаrаctеr, trаditiоns аnd custоmsоf diffеrеnt pеоplе. Thе bеst wаy tо imprоvеоnе’s undеrstаnding оf thе wоrld culturе, pеоplеаnd histоry is tо studyаnd cоmpаrеprоvеrbsаnd sаyings in rеlаtеd оr nоn-rеlаtеd  lаnguаgеs. Аnоthеr rеаsоn is thаt thе prоvеrbs, sаyings аnd quоtаtiоns tеаch mаny аpt оbsеrvаtiоns mаdе by pеоplеаnd sоmеtimеs thеy аrе trаnslаtеd frоm аnciеnt writtеn sоurcеs, аnd/оr bоrrоwеd frоm thе wоrld’s bеst chоsеn litеrаry wоrks. Thе mаin purpоsеоf this аrticlе is tо cоnvеy mеаnings оf prоvеrbs аnd sаyings in thеmаtic grоups оf cоmpаrеd lаnguаgеs аnd tо dеfinе thеlinguo-cultural similаritiеs  аs linguistic phеnоmеnа in non-related lаnguаgеs.
[Rysbayeva  Guldarkhan. LINGUА-CULTURАL CОMPАRАTIVЕ-CОNTRАSTIVЕ АNАLYSIS ОF PHRАSЕОLОGICАL UNITS OF CULT  IN ЕNGLISH, KАZАKH АND RUSSIАN LАNGUАGЕS. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022; 8(3):49-57]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 06. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080322.06.
Kеy wоrds: phrаsеоlоgicаl units, prоvеrbs аnd sаyings, cоmpаrаtivе-cоntrаstivе аnаlysis, linguо-culturаl аspеct, non-related languages

7. Control of dglucose is Determinant of Renal Preservation in Diabetes
Anil K. Mandal, MB,BS ¹, Linda M. Hiebert,Ph.D², Harry Khamis Ph.D³
1.       Mandal Diabetes Research Foundation and University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida,
2.       University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
3.       Statistical consulting center, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio

Corresponding Author
Anil K. Mandal
Mandal Diabetes Research Foundation
665 SR 207, Suite 102,
Saint Augustine, Florida 32086, USA-
Telephone (904) 824-8158
Fax (904) 823-1284

Abstract: We previously reported that dglucose is a strong predictor of renal function change in diabetes. This study is an expansion of a previous study with longer duration. Data was compared between first and last visits. Eighty five diabetic patients were treated with a combination of glargine or detemir and regular or fast acting insulin for 26.3 ± 24.6 (SD) months. Blood pressure was controlled by beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, sympathetic inhibitors, or a combination, and chlorthalidone in resistant cases. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and receptors blockers (ACEI/ARB) were excluded in order to reduce the risk of acute and chronic renal failure. Objectives were to determine if this paradigm of treatment prevents progression of diabetic nephropathy. Fasting (F) and 2-hour postprandial (2hPP), glucose, serum creatinine (Scr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c); and sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) were recorded for first and last visits. Mean blood pressure (MBP) and differences (d, 2hPP-F) were calculated for glucose, Scr, and eGFR. Parameters between first and last visits were compared using a paired t-test adjusted for age, gender and duration of treatment with P<0.05 considered significant. No significant differences were found between first and last visits for F and 2hPP glucose, F and 2hPP Scr, and F and 2hPP eGFR, and HbA1c. dglucose, sitting SBP and MBP were significantly lower at last compared to first visit. Combining both visits, dglucose and HbA1c showed a direct and positive correlation with dScr.Change in post minus pretreatment values were significantly positively correlated between HbA1c and FBG, 2hPPG or dglucose. In conclusion the current study emphasizes the importance of control of dglucose (2hPP-F) with insulin in preserving renal function in diabetes.
[Anil K. Mandal, MB,BS, Linda M. Hiebert,Ph.D, Harry Khamis Ph.D. Control of dglucose is Determinant of Renal Preservation in Diabetes. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022; 8(3):58-67]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 07. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080322.07.
Keywords: Control; dglucose; Determinant; Renal; Preservation; Diabetes

8. α-2 Genetic variant of α2β1 integrin and Risk of Stroke in Tunisian Population
Akram Jalel1, Fatma Midani2 ,Rim Mannai 3,Maher Kharrat 4, Fayçal Hentati 5, Mahjoubi Halima6,   Hayet Soualmia7
1,6Laboratory of Biophysics, Higher Institute of Medical Technologies of Tunis -TUNISIA,
2 Neurology Service, National Institute of Neurology -TUNISIA,
3Genetic Department, University of Tunis Elmanar -TUNISIA,
4Université Tunis El Manar, Faculty of de Medicine of Tunis-TUNISIA,
5Neurology Service, National Institute of Neurology -TUNISIA,
2,7 Biochemistry Department, and Laboratory of biochemistry La Rabta -TUNISIA,

AUTHOR to whom correspondence should be sent:

Dr. Akrem Jalel *

9 street Zouheir Essafi.1006
2852 University Street
Québec G2V 0A9

Abstract: Background: Integrins are membrane adhesion proteins belonging to the family of transmembrane receptors, and hetero-dimeric glycoprotein consisting of two subunits α and β . This protein is encoded by ITGA2 gene. it is essentially involved in cell-cell interaction, cell-pathogen agent and cell-extracellular matrix. It plays a major role in platelet adhesion to the sub endothelial matrix in thrombogenesis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the Bgl II polymorphism of the α2β1 integrin and stroke in the Tunisian population. METHODS: Case-controlled study included 34 patients with stroke and 35 healthy controls. The Bgl II polymorphism of α2β1 integrins was determined by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis method. RESULTS: In the whole population, the genotypic frequencies of the Bgl II polymorphism of the α2β1 integrin in stroke and control groups (+/+, +/-, -/-) were 16.7%, 40 %, 43.3% and 2.9%, 42.9%, 54.3% , respectively (χ2 = 9.13, p< 0.01). The genotype was not associated with stroke, OR=0.16 , 95% CI [0.01-1.56], p<0.11 for heterozygous and OR=0.13, 95% CI [0.01-1.31], p<0.08 for  homozygous. All the other comparisons failed to show any significant result. Furthermore, a relationship was found between clinical characteristics and Bgl II genotypes. CONCLUSION: The present study does not support any association between Bgl II polymorphism of the α2β1 integrin and stroke. Then, our results suggest that this variant can’t be considered as a genetic risk factor for stroke in the Tunisian population.
[Akram Jalel, Fatma Midani,Rim Mannai,Maher Kharrat, Fayçal Hentati, Mahjoubi Halima,Hayet Soualmia. α-2 Genetic variant of α2β1 integrin and Risk of Stroke in Tunisian Population. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022; 8(3):68-74]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 08.
Key words: Stroke, α2β1 integrin, genetic, α-2 variant, ITGA2 gene, thrombogenesis

9. Comparison of phytochemical extraction solvents and regeneration hormone combinations for Andrographis paniculata”
Navjot Kaur and Jeena Gupta*
Department of Biotechnology, Lovely Professional University (LPU), Phagwara, Punjab (India) - 144411
*Address correspondence to: Dr. Jeena Gupta, Assistant Professor, Department of Biotechnology, Lovely Professional University (LPU), Jalandhar - Delhi G.T. Road (NH-1), Phagwara, Punjab (India) - 144411
Phone: +91-1824-404404, Fax: +91-1824-506111,

Abstract: Medicinal plants are of great use as they can be used to treat various diseases without side effects of the chemical drugs. Andrographis paniculata is one such plant possessing many health benefits like antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumor, antidiabetic, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities. In spite of all the known beneficial effects, there is no standardized protocol for extraction of bioactive components from this plant. So in the present study our main aim is to compare the different extraction solvents (acetone, chloroform, distilled water, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol) for their efficiency in extracting Andrographis Paniculata plant’s bioactive components. Further we also want to standardize the plant’s regeneration protocol under laboratory controlled conditions using different hormone combinations. To best of our knowledge this is the first report which shows that the extraction of phytochemicals from the dried leaves of Andrographis paniculata is maximally obtained by using chloroform and distilled water as an extraction solvent and provides various hormone combinations for regeneration of this plant under laboratory controlled conditions.
[Navjot Kaur and Jeena Gupta. Comparison of phytochemical extraction solvents and regeneration hormone combinations for Andrographis paniculata. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022; 8(3):75-81]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 09. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080322.09.
Keywords: Andrographis paniculata; Extraction solvent; Bioactive component; plant regeneration and Chloroform

10. Investigating the Efficacy of Behavioral-Systems Approach in Treatment of Patients with Unconsummated Marriage
Kiomars najafi*1, Taiebeh Yeganeh2, Homa zarrabi1, Somayeh shokrgozar1, Elahee abdollahi1, Mohammad ali sardari1, Zahra Abbaspor1, Hassan farrahi1
1.       Department of Psychiatry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran

PhD. Student in Health Psychology, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
*Corresponding author:

Abstract: Introduction and objectives: Unconsummated marriage is a complex sexual disorder which includes psychological and physical aspects. The couples with this problem often for long times, sometimes even up to several years, single-handedly attempt to solve the problem and when they fail and enter into sex therapy process, because of sensitive nature of the disease, they don’t have enough motivation to continue a long-term treatment due to created marital disharmony, relationships disorders, depression and anxiety. Therefore, considering unconsummated marriage as an emergency case, present study aims to investigate the efficacy of behavioral - systems approach in treatment of patients with unconsummated marriage.  Methods: Present study is a quasi-experimental study. Statistical population of the study includes couples with a history of unconsummated marriage (vaginismus type) referring to Tolou specialty and subspecialty clinic of Rasht City during the years 2015-2016. To that end, 44 couples were selected as research sample through convenience method. Sex therapy protocol was conducted in the form of 5 weekly individual half-hour sessions. The data were analyzed using descriptive indicators. Results: 21 couples (56.8%) were treated according to the protocol in five sessions and 16 (43.2%) couples were treated in 8 sessions. Conclusion: Given cultural conditions of the Iranian society, treatment of unconsummated marriage (vaginismus type) will be efficient in short time with a focus on training and increasing sexual information, correcting misunderstandings, gradual desensitization and reducing fear and anxiety. 
[Kiomars najafi, Taiebeh Yeganeh, Homa zarrabi, Somayeh shokrgozar, Elahee abdollahi, Mohammad ali sardari, Zahra Abbaspor, Hassan farrahi. Investigating the Efficacy of Behavioral

Systems Approach in Treatment of Patients with Unconsummated Marriage. Biomedicine and Nursing 2022; 8(3):82-87]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 10. doi:10.7537/marsbnj080322.10.
Keywords: Sexual activity, sex therapy, vaginismus, frequency of intercourse (frequency of sexual intercourse)

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