ISSN 2379-8203


Biomedicine and Nursing
Volume 9 - Issue 1 (Cumulated No. 32), March 25, 2023. (COVER) 

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1. Serological Prevalence of Malaria and Hepatitis Coinfection Among HIV-Infected Patients Presenting at a Tertiary Hospital in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Okonko IO, Jerry GA, Baeka GB, Okonko BJ 
1Virus & Genomics Research Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
2Virology & Immunology Research Unit, Department of Applied Microbiology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
3Virology Research Unit, Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu Oroworukwo, mile 3, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
E-mail:; Tel: +2347069697309

Abstract: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Plasmodium falciparum are two of developing nations' most prevalent infectious illnesses. This study sought to ascertain the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum and HBV coinfection in HIV-positive individuals in locations where both diseases are widespread and to evaluate the risk factors associated with this coinfection, which could then be used to track the disease's trajectory. HIV-positive individuals who visited the River State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, had blood samples taken. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and malaria Plasmodium falciparum serological prevalence were examined in these samples. Malaria was not a problem for any of the patients. However, 3.0% did have HBsAg, and 97.0% had HIV mono-infection. Hepatitis B seroprevalence was highest in age groups 31 to 40, where it was 5.3%, and lowest in age groups 41 to 50, where it was 2.9%. There was no hepatitis seroprevalence in the other age groups. HBV was more common in females (3.6%) than males (2.2%). This study found that those with HIV were substantially more likely to also have HBV infection (3.0%), and vice versa, among HIV-infected patients in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, with a seroprevalence of 0.0% for malaria and malaria/HBV coinfection. The results of the current study confirmed the zero coinfection of HBV and Plasmodium falciparum. The absence of malaria Plasmodium falciparum and low HBV rates (3.1%) could be attributed to increased public awareness in the area. Though Plasmodium falciparum was absent, the results of the current study showed that HBV is seroprevalent, which will aid in understanding coinfection and developing treatment plans. To recognise the dual burden of these two illnesses, control Plasmodium spp. parasites and the healthcare communities regularly administering HBV immunisations can benefit from the study's findings. Further research examining the relationship between Plasmodium falciparum and HBV is advised.
[Okonko IO, Jerry GA, Baeka GB, Okonko BJ. (2023). Serological Prevalence of Malaria and Hepatitis coinfection among HIV-Infected Patients presenting at a Tertiary Hospital in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Biomedicine and Nursing 2023; 9(1):1-12]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 01. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090123.01.
Keywords: Coinfection, HBV, Malaria, mono-infection, Plasmodium falciparum, Nigeria

2. Zamin Grows In The National Nature Garden And Is Used In Folk M edicine Roses - Special Properties Of Unique Medicinal Plants Belonging To The Rosaceae Family
1Sakiev Kabiljon Bosimovich
Research Institute of Environment and Nature Protection Technologies
2Torakulova Dilnoza Egamberdievna
Student of the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering Technologies, Tashkent State Technical University
3Borasulov Akmal Mirayimovich
Head of the Agrobiotechnology Department of the Tashkent branch of the Samarkand State University of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Husbandry and Biotechnology,
4Sattarov Muzaffar Eshtemirovich
Head of the National Collection of Microorganisms for Production at the Tashkent Research Institute of Vaccines and Serums,

Abstract: In this article in folk medicine, tea is drunk from apricot kernels when the heart aches and in cases of heart disease. Apricot fruit gives a person medicine, helps in case of anemia. Abu Ali ibn Sina used apricot fruit to treat gastrointestinal diseases. The glue collected from the bark of the tree is used in scientific medicine in the preparation of dressings and oil emulsions. Apricot kernel oil is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. Zomin National Nature Park is a place that naturally preserves the gene pool of valuable plants necessary for humans. Medicinal, aromatic, honey, cooking, food, decorative, building materials, and other groups of plants that have become important in human life are widespread. Problems of preservation and reproduction of rare and disappearing plant species are becoming more difficult. If measures are not taken in time to determine their distribution in one or another area, to study the population situation, to take into account the factors affecting the disappearance of species, the problems may deepen. In conclusion, we can say that Zomin National Park is a place rich in medicinal plants.  
[Sakiev K. at. El. Zamin Grows In The National Nature Garden And Is Used In Folk Medicine Roses-Special Properties Of Unique Medicinal Plants Belonging To The Rosaceae Family. Biomedicine  and Nursing 2023; 9(1):13-16]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 02. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090123.02.
Key words: Zamin, garden, medicinal, family, nature park

3. Effect of Shading on Biomass and N Mass Partitioning in Paddy Rice Seedling Through Allometric Analysis
Zhang Feng 1, LiJie, Wang Xinlin1,Mao Wei1, Zhang Hui1, Guo Jing2, Li Jinwen3
1Xinjiang Vocation & Technology College of Communications, Urumuqi, China
2Xinjiang Academy of Forestry, Urumuqi 830000, China
3Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shanghai, China
Author Contributions:
Conceived and designed the experiments: Zhang Feng, Li Jinwen. Performed the experiments: Zhang Feng, Li Jinwen. Analyzed the data: Zhang Feng, Li Jie, Mao Wei. Wrote the paper: Zhang Feng, Li Jie, Wang Xinlin, Mao Wei. Reviewed and revised the manuscript: Li Jinwen, Zhang Hui, Guo Jing.
All authors have approved the final article, and the authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Abstract: An allometric analysis of biomass and N mass allocation of rice (Oryza Sativa L.) seedlings under non-shading (100% of full sunlight) and shading (30% of full sunlight) were conducted. The allometric exponents or slopes and the intercepts were estimated by the standardized major axis regression. Results indicated that biomass was preferentially allocated to stem along plant ontogeny. Leaves and roots were isometric when rice seedlings were not shaded. More biomass was allocated to leaves and stems when under shading. N mass allocation was also altered by shading. More N mass was allocated to aerial shoot, and accumulated less N mass when plant under shading. Our study revealed that both biomass and N mass were in accordance with the optimal partitioning theory.
[Zhang Feng, Li Jie, Wang Xinlin,Mao Wei, Zhang Hui, Guo Jing, Li Jinwen. Effect of shading on biomass and N mass partitioning in paddy rice seedling through allometric analysis. Biomedicine  and Nursing 2023;9(1):17-21]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 03.doi:10.7537/marsbnj090123.03.
Keywords: optimal partitioning theory; ontogeny; paddy rice; standardized major axis regression

4. Poor Quality Sterile Water For Injection In Nigeria Drug Distribution Chain: A Threat To The Attainment Of Health Related Millennium Development Goals In Nigeria
O. OKORIE1 Ph.D, T. J. N. OKONKWO2* Ph.D, M. A. OGAN1 B. Pharm.
1Pharmaceutics/Pharmaceutical Technology Department, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road Choba, 500004 Port Harcourt, Nigeria
2Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road Choba, 500004 Port Harcourt, Nigeria
*Address for correspondence:, +2348067101645
Running title: Poor quality sterile water for injection in Nigeria drug distribution chain.

Abstract: Water is frequently used in pharmaceutical industries and practice. For reconstituting parenterals, water is expected to be devoid of physicochemical and heavy metals contaminants, and maintain absolute microbial sterility with bacterial endotoxins not exceeding 0.25 EU/ml or 0.25 IU/ml. Thus the five (5) most frequently utilised brands of Sterile Water for Injection (SWFI) [coded SWFI-1, SWFI-2, SWFI-3, SWFI-4 and SWFI-5] in, South-South, Nigeria were assessed to determine if the products met the physicochemical, heavy metal and microbiological quality criteria stipulated in official compendia. The SWFIs were assayed for microbial contamination, bacterial endotoxins (pyrogens), heavy metals and physicochemical contaminants using the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and the British Pharmacopoeia (BP) methods. Results indicated that almost all the physicochemical quality indices of the SWFIs were within acceptable limits. However, none of the brands passed the heavy metal content criteria; with respect to lead, manganese, cadmium and chromium. Since 80, 60, 40 and 60% of the samples, were respectively laced with these heavy metals above 0.1 mg/l. No viable bacteria colony (VBC) was detected, after culture on nutrient agar and incubation at 37 ± 1 ºC over a 48 hour period. The bacterial endotoxins levels ranged from 0.239 ± 0.001 – 1.259 ± 0.000 EU/ml, and revealed that only SWFI-4 (0.239 ± 0.001 EU/ml bacterial endotoxins content) passed the pyrogen test for Sterile Water for Injection. Taken together, none of the samples passed all the quality assurance criteria for wholesome Sterile Water for Injection. Thus each of the products is unfit for clinical use; as such use is likely to be associated with heavy metal toxicity and pyrexia. Besides assigning control number to these products, various national drug regulatory agencies should up-grade the regulatory control of the total quality of SWFIs, in order to guarantee the safety of users.  
[O. OKORIE Ph.D, T. J. N. OKONKWO  Ph.D, M. A. OGAN  B. Pharm. Poor Quality Sterile Water For Injection In Nigeria Drug Distribution Chain: A Threat To The Attainment Of Health Related Millennium Development Goals In Nigeria. Biomedicine and Nursing 2023;9(1):22-27]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 04.doi:10.7537/marsbnj090123.04.
Key words: Quality assessment, Sterile water for injection, Physicochemical and microbiological quality indices, Bacterial endotoxins, Pyrogens, Heavy metals 

5. Study of the Effect of Grain Moisture and Speed in Some Qualitative Characteristics of the Cultivar of Wheat Ahwaze 1

MousaA.J. 1*, Kianmeher.M. H. 1, Kermani.A.M. 1 A. A. Hosseini1
Department of Agrotechonlogy, College Aburaihan,  University of Tehran, Iran
*Corresponding author :

Abstract:  The experiment has been conducted to evaluate the effect grain moisture  and speed in some technical indicators of wheat cultivar, Ahwaz 1, in the laboratories of the Tehran University in2015.This research includes the using of two types of  machines ( Cylinder and Hammer), under three moisture content levels 13-15% , 15- 17% and 17-19% , and three speed levels 0.717 , 0.820 and 0.921. The results showed that the Cylinder type machine  is significantly better on the Hammer type  machine  in all studies traits. As well as moisture grain 13-15% is superiorly significantly on two  15-17%,17-19% levels in all studied traits .While speed 0.717 significant superiorly in two  ,0.820 ,0.921 levels in all studies traits .The overlap between the machine type Cylinder and grain moisture content 13-15% superiority significantly and  also overlap between the Cylinder type machine and speed 0.717 in all studied traits as compared with overlap of the  Hammer type  machine with  grain moisture and two speeding in all studied traits. The best results have come from the triple overlap among Cylinder type machine, grain moisture 13-15%, and speed 0.717 in all studies tirats  the best result with overlap 0.717 with grain moisture  13-15% and  Cylinder type machine. 
[MousaA.J., Kianmeher.M. H., Kermani.A.M.  A. A. Hosseini.  Study of  the  effect of grani moisture  and speed in some qualitative characteristics of the cultivar of wheat Ahwaze 1. Biomedicine  and Nursing   2023;9(1):28-38]. ISSN2379-8211(print);ISSN2379-8203(online). 05.doi:10.7537/marsbnj090123.05.
Keywords: Degree of hardness, percentage of exact material, percentage of fiber, percentage of impurities,proportion of protien,percentage of bran.

6. Agile Design of Public Hospitals in Iran
Masoomeh Abdi1, Ghahraman Mahmoudi 2*, Mohammad Ali Jahani 3
1-MSc Student, Health Services Management, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran
2- hospital  management  research center, Department of Health Services management, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran (Corresponding
3- Department of  General Education, School of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran

Abstract: Purpose: Hospitals that are part of the organization because of the sensitivity and importance of the treatment must have in today's dynamic agile structure to be able to adapt to environmental changes. The aim of this study was to provide a structural model of agility in hospitals. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in the year 2014-2015. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from mentioned the statistical population. Validity of the questionnaire through examination exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests with Cronbach's alpha was approved 0.97. Data software 18 SPSS and 8.5 Lisrel a factor analysis using mathematical models the final model was developed based on confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the pattern was evaluated. Results: Question related to four agility (responsiveness, competence, flexibility, speed) are measured at the agility hospital And supply chain (independent variables) to correctly cover the variable and valid. Agile supply chain variable between maximum sensitivity and responsiveness(0.66±1.98) To develop the skills of employees received the lowest average (0.46±1.34) As well as structural equation modeling and all relationships were verified  (P-value = 0.00) (t-value ≥ 1.96). Conclusion: Therefore, it is suggested to apply that to be successful and better adapted to the environment and achieve enhanced service quality, employee satisfaction and patients, competitiveness, reduce costs, reduce time to service delivery and organizational agility.
[Masoomeh Abdi, Ghahraman Mahmoudi, Mohammad Ali Jahani. Agile Design of Public Hospitals in Iran. Biomedicine  and Nursing 2023;9(1):39-47]. ISSN 2379-8211(print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 06. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090123.06.
Keywords: agile manufacturing, general hospital, responsiveness, competence, speed, flexibility

7. Effect of Using Garlic on the Economical and Physiological Characteristics Broiler Chicks
Motasem ALMassad1  D. AL-Ramamneh2   Ali Al-Sharafat3N. Hussain4
1Department of Animal Production and Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Jerash University, P. O. Box 311, Postal Code 26150, Jerash-Jordan
2Department of  Biology, University College of Tayma, Tabuk University, Tabuk, P.O. Box 741, Kingdom of Saudi Arabi                   
3Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Jerash University, P. O. Box 311, Postal Cod   e       26150, Jerash-Jordan,
4Livestock and Rangeland Directorate, National Centre for Agricultural Research and Extension, P.O. Box: 639, Baq'a 19381, Jordan

Abstract: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the beneficial effects of garlic powder as a phytogenic supplement on broilers chickens’ performance. The assumption that garlic could improve some economic and performance characteristics of broiler chickens (i.e., body weight, feed intake, water intake, feed conversion ratio, feeding cost, carcass yield and mortality rate) was tested. A total of 400 one-day-old chicks of mixed sex (Hybrid) were weighed and randomly assigned to four treatment groups, each with 4 replicate pens of 25 chicks. The dietary treatments included the basal diet (control), control + 2.5 kg /ton Garlic, or control + 5 kg /ton Garlic or 7.5 kg /ton Garlic as powder. The results of the study revealed that incorporation of garlic powder in broiler diets as feed additive significantly enhanced growth, economic and productive performance of these chickens. Physiological measurements (body weight, weight gains, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, carcass weight and internal organs) showed better performance of garlic treated chickens compared with control group under same rearing system. The results similarly showed lower susceptibility to diseases and medicament treatment consequently; lower mortality rate compared to control groups. Furthermore, blood and meat analysis showed lower cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL, and, HDL levels compared with control group. The study concluded that Garlic can be effectively used in broilers feeding to replace antibiotic as growth promoter. 
[Motasem AL Massad  D. AL-Ramamneh   Ali Al-Sharafat, N. Hussain.  Effect of Using Garlic on the Economical and Physiological Characteristics Broiler Chicks. Biomedicine  and Nursing 2023;9(1):48-53]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 07.doi:10.7537/marsbnj090123.07.
Keywords: Effect; Garlic; Economical; Physiological; Characteristics; Broiler; Chick

​8. Population Density and Various Stress Factors Affecting Number of Rhesus Monkey, Macaca Mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780) in Bir Sonti Reserve Forest in District Kurukshetra, Haryana (India)
*Ajay Kumar
Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India)
*e-mail -

Abstract: Line transect method (Sale  and  Berkmuller,  1988) was used to record population density and various stress factors affecting number of Rhesus Monkey, Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780) in Bir Sonti Reserve Forest in district Kurukshetra, Haryana (India). Population density/Km2 of sighted Rhesus Macaques varied from a minimum of 154.76 individuals/Km2(November) to a maximum of 347.61 individuals/Km2 (April) with an average of 234.71±4.97 individuals/Km2 were recorded in the study area. Conflict with man and their domestic dog and Hanuman Langur, increase human activity in forest, less number of fruit tree in forest, well develop agricultural area nearby forest, searching food toward road side (because people thrown food items on Ladwa-Pipli road that is passes in the forest) and Hanuman Mandir in particular day, i.e., Tuesday and Friday of each week in each months of year; increases artificial plantation (nursery) in forest, use of electrical fencing by farmers nearby agricultural of forest and less water resources is main reason of monthly as well as seasonally variation in population density of Rhesus Macaques in study area. 
[Ajay Kumar.  Population Density and Various Stress Factors Affecting Number of Rhesus Monkey, Macaca Mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780) in Bir Sonti Reserve Forest in District Kurukshetra, Haryana (India). Biomedicine  and Nursing 2023;9(1):54-60].ISSN2379-8211(print);ISSN2379-8203(online). 08.
Keywords: Rhesus Monkey, Population Density, Stress Factor, Bir Sonti Reserve Forest, Kurukshetra, Haryana

9. Tetanus: A Review of the Literature
Gashaw Enbiyale (Dr)
Field Practitioner at University of Gondar Veterinary hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine and science, University of Gondar, P.o. box. 196, Gondar, Ethiopia

Abstract: This review work was conducted from august 2016 to march in 2017 in Ethiopia. Tetanus is caused by an infection with the bacterium Clostridium tetani which is commonly found in soil, saliva, dust, and manure. Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms. In the most common type, the spasms begin in the jaw and then progress to the rest of the body. These spasms usually last a few minutes each time and occur frequently for three to four weeks. Tetanus is now a rare disease in the developed world. However,it remains are important cause of death worldwide and is associated with a high case mortality, particularly in the developing world. Modern intensive care management should prevent death from acute respiratory failure, but cardiovascular complications as a result of autonomicinstability and other causes of death remain problematic. In this article, i review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and current management of tetanus.
[Gashaw, E. Tetanus: A Review of the Literature, Biomedicine and Nursing 2023;9(1):61-72]. ISSN 2379-8211(print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 09. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090123.09.
Keywords: infection, tetanus; complications, autonomic dysfunction; intensive care, management; complications, death

10. International Students’ Mental Health and Their Attitude Towards Counselling Centres
Masoumeh Alavi1, Seyed Mohamed Shafeq2, Mohd Tajudin Ninggal2
1. Department of Guidance and Counselling, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81300, Malaysia
2. Department of Guidance and Counselling, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Malaysia

Abstract: The primary goal of this study is to identify the state of international students’ mental health in a university setting. As the second objective, the study investigate students’ attitude toward seeking help from counselling centre located in their university. A sample of 80 international postgraduate students with mental health problems was selected from 412 populations. For the purpose of data collection a questionnaire was administered. The questionnaire involved two parts. The first part was the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and the second part was a researcher-made questionnaire concerning students’ attitude toward seeking counselling help. The findings indicated that from the total of 80 international students with mental health problems only 26 had visited the university counselling centre. The main reasons behind the reluctance of students to seek counselling help were 1) not having any information regarding the location of the counselling centre or places that offer related services by 0.224, 2) negative culture and beliefs regarding counselling by 0.168, 3) lack of safety or having concern about confidentiality in counselling by 0.168, and 4) not feeling any need to do so by 0.152.
[Alavi M, Shafeq M, Ninggal T. International Students’ Mental Health and Their Attitude Towards Counselling Centres. Biomedicine and Nursing 2023;9(1):73-78]. ISSN 2379-8211(print); ISSN 2379-8203(online).
Keywords: international students; attitude; counselling centre; mental health; counselling

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