ISSN 2379-8203


Biomedicine and Nursing
Volume 9 - Issue 3 (Cumulated No. 34), September 25, 2023. (COVER)

Office of Biomedicine & Nursing, 2316 Gunther Avenue, Suite 3-3, Bronx, New York 10469, USA. Tel. +1 718-502-6829; Fax: +1 718-513-0385. And/or The 5th Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 3-KangFu QianStreet,5thAffiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450052, China.  011-86-371-66916782.
Welcome to send your manuscript to:,
When you submit manuscript(s), please mention that it is submitted to Biomedicine and Nursing

The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from September 2, 2023. 
All comments are welcome:, or contact with author(s) directly. 
Websites:;; E-mails:,
The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 2 Jingba Road, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450014, China. 011-86-371-6362-0736.
2316 Gunther Avenue, Suite 3-3, Bronx , New York 10469, USA; Tel. +1 718-502-6829; Fax: +1 718-513-0385
Welcome to send your manuscript to:,
When you submit manuscript(s), please mention that it is submitted to Biomedicine and Nursing.

1. Review on Epidemiology of Peste Des Petits Ruminants, Global Perspective 
Birhanu Eticha Bekonjo
Benishangul Gumuz regional State bureau of agriculture, e-mail:; P.O. Box 30, Assosa, Ethiopia

Abstract: Peste des petits ruminants is an acute, extremely contagious and economically important transboundary viral disease of shoat that is categorized by OIE as a notifiable animal disease. It   is among the main constraints of shoat production in the Globe where it is endemic. The disease is characterized in affected animals by increased respiratory rates, extension of the head and neck, dilation of nostrils, protrusion of the tongue, abdominal breathing and soft and painful cough. In post mortem finding, necrotic/hemorrhagic enteritis is usually present and linear hemorrhages or zebra stripes might be located in the colon and caecum. The disease is transmitted by either direct or indirect contact and is influenced by age, breed, flock size, exposure status of animals and climatic condition of the areas. Peste des petits ruminants has a significant economic impact on shoat production negatively affecting the livelihood of the poor farmer by causing high morbidity and mortality to their animals. Therefore, control of the disease by applying more effective measures like slaughter of infected herd, correct disinfection of contaminants and adequate disposal of carcasses, movement control, emergency vaccination and quarantine should be undertaken to mitigate the impact of the disease. 
[Birhanu Eticha Bekonjo. Review on Epidemiology of Peste Des Petits Ruminants, Global Perspective. Biomedicine and Nursing 2023; 9(3):1-7]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 01. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090323.01.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Peste des petits ruminants and Shoat

2. Toxic Effects of Detlamethrin on Histological structure of Urogenital System of Adults Male Rabbits and Antioxidants Role of Folic Acid
Najat Mohammed1, Huda Hassan2, Alnagy Ali3, Fayrouz Khaled4
1Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Technology, Omer AL-Mukhtar University, Libya
2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Omer AL-Mukhtar University, Libya
3Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Omer AL-Mukhtar University, Libya
4Departmentof Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Omer AL-Mukhtar University, Libya

Abstract: Introduction: Deltamethrin insecticide has been widely applied for agriculture and veterinary purposes. However, exposure to it attributed to several deleterious impacts to animals and human health. Aim of the Work: The study aimed to evaluate the negative impacts of deltamethrin on the normal architecture of kidney and testes of adult male rabbits on long term exposure and manifested the possible protective effect of folic acids against this insecticide toxicity. Materials and Methods: Twenty adult male rabbits were divided into four groups; group 1 (control group), group 2 administrated 1.28mg/Kg of deltamethrin, group 3 received 5mg/kg BW of folic acid and group 4 was given a combination of deltamethrin and folic acid. The treatment was applied once daily for 12 weeks. The specimens were processed and stained with H&E and PAS satin for light microscopic examination. Results: Deltamethrin treated rabbits showed tubular injury in the form of loss of brush border, dropping off nuclei and karyolysis of tubular cells. In addition, flattening of tubular epithelium and dilatation of renal tubular were also observed. Glomerulus appeared with mesangial cells expansion and capillary tuft congestion. The peritubular lymphocytic infiltration and areas of hemorrhagic were noticed in the interstitium. Kidney sections stained with PAS demonstrated a marked decrease of carbohydrate contents of tubular epithelium and disruption of membrane structures which are induced by deltamethrin toxicity. The same finding were also seen in combination group indicating no role of folic acids as antioxidants. Regarding to testicular tissue, deltamethrin induced hydropic degeneration of seminiferous tubules leading to destroy of stratified germinal layers and series of spermatogenia with focal loss of spermatid production. The interstitial cells of Leydig between tubules revealed a marked proliferation. In spite of treated animals, combination group showed a focal improvement of spermatogensis with returning back to the normal length spermatgonia layers. Conclusion: Deltamethrin induced obvious structural changes to kidney and tests of rabbits, therefore it should be carefully limited at farms and animal houses to avoid serious impacts on human health. Application of antioxidants such as foilc acid could be useful to ameliorate testes damage while showed on beneficial effect on renal structures.
[Najat Mohammed, Huda Hassan, Alnagy Ali, Fayrouz Khaled. Toxic Effects of Detlamethrin on Histological structure of Urogenital System of Adults Male Rabbits and Antioxidants Role of Folic Acid. Biomedicine and Nursing 2023;9(3):8-15]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 02. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090323.02.
Key Words: Kidney, testicular tissue, deltamethrin toxicity, rabbits and folic acid

3. Evaluation of Hematological Changes in The Pregnant Women in EL-Beyda City- Libya

Najat M. H. Mohammed1, Kasem A. Farag2
1Faculty of Medical Technology, Laboratory Medicine Department, Omer AL-Mukhtar University, EL-Beyda-Libya
2Faculty of Science, Mathematics Department, Omer AL-Mukhtar University, EL-Beyda-Libya

Abstract: Anemia in pregnancy is considered a major public health problem and is commonly associated with many consequences as low birth weight, premature delivery and the increased risk of the maternal mortality and morbidity in the pregnant women, mainly in the developing countries. The present study was designed to estimate the changes in hematological parameters in women during pregnancy at EL-Bayda city. Cross sectional study involved 350 randomly selected pregnant mothers who are attended several medical clinics in the period of February to July 2022, of age group (17-48) years. A venous blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes and analyzed for complete blood counts (CBC) to evaluate hemoglobin levels (Hb), mean cell hemoglobin (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets count. Other data were also reported including women age, trimester of pregnancy, the number of the gravida and the parity. Results will be analyzed by SPSS version 26 and represented as mean ± SE and P value is considered significant when it is less than 0.05. The mean age of the participants women was 29.5(±0.33), the overall prevalence of anemia was 57% and vast of them were in third trimester period. Out of 198 anemic women, 91 (45%) of them were suffered from microcytic hypochromic anemia (mean of MCV 71.5fl) while the rest (97) had normocytic normochromic anemia (Mean of MCV 88fl). The present investigation was revealed that the mean of hemoglobin of anemic women was (9.83±0.062) which are significantly difference in the mean of non anemic women (p value =0.000) as well as majority of women 165 (81 %) had mild anemia (Hb= 9-10.9 g/dl). We can conclude that the prevalence of anemia in Libya is considerably high in comparison to other countries, therefore the great awareness efforts are recommended to encourge a regular antenatal checkups.
[Najat M. H. Mohammed, Kasem A. Farag. Evaluation of Hematological Changes in The Pregnant Women in EL-Beyda City- Libya. Biomedicine and Nursing 2023;9(3):16-21].ISSN2379-8211(print);ISSN2379-8203(online). 03. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090323.03.
Keywords: Pregnant women, Anemia, Trimester, Parity and Gravida

4. A case study - A simple method to prevent cockroaches
Nancy Abdel Fattah Ahmed

Corresponding Author:  Nancy Abdel Fattah Ahmed
Professor Of Internal Medicine & Hepatology, Internal Medicine  Department, Faculty Of Medicine Mansoura University Egypt.

Abstract: Background/aim:   Cockroaches are one of the most successful organisms that remained alive till now, cockroaches borne diseases are many so the aim of this study was to find a simple, easy and cheap way to prevent it. Methods: A direct light was used. Results:  No cockroaches were found at all. Conclusion:  It can be concluded that direct  light  is a simple, easy and cheap way to prevent cockroaches. 
[Nancy Abdel Fattah Ahmed. A case study A simple method to prevent cockroaches. Nancy Abdel Fattah Ahmed.  Biomedicine and Nursing 2023;9(3):22-23]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 04. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090323.04.
Keywords: Cockroaches   and  light

5. Amelioration the adverse effect of salt stress in two barley cultivars by using gibberellic acid
Amal M. E. Abdel-Hamid1,2 and Heba I. Mohamed1*
1. Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
2. Department of Biology, Collage of Sciences, Al-Jouf University, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia

Abstract: An alternative strategy to ameliorate salt stress could be to use exogenous application of plant growth regulators. The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of exogenous application of GA3 on germination, some growth parameters, protein banding pattern, nucleic acids content and some minerals of salt stressed two cultivars of barley. The grains of both cultivars Giza 126 and 123 were individually pre emergence treated with different concentrations of NaCl or mixture of NaCl and GA3 for 7 days. The results of germination percentage revealed that cv. Giza 123 had higher response to the interaction between salinity and GA3 than cv. Giza 126. The morphological characters revealed inhibition in all plant growth parameters by salinity stress and this inhibition was significantly alleviated after treatment with GA3. The protein electrophoresis of seedlings of cv. Giza 123 induced formation of unique newly protein bands including certain units may acting as protein receptors for gibberellins (M.W. 71.41 kDa). In addition, the DNA and RNA content of cv. Giza 123 showed its priority to the interaction between salinity and GA3. Regarding to minerals the data showed that cv. Giza 123 had the ability to discard salts and prevent the accumulation of them in its tissues especially Na+, k+ and Ca+2 elements. cv. Giza 123 seedlings could overcome the inimical effects of salt stress whereas cv. Giza 126 seedlings appeared to have an attenuated potential to do so resulting in an efficient tolerance of cv. Giza 123 seedlings. 
[Abdel-Hamid A.M.E., Mohamed H.I. Amelioration the adverse effect of salt stress in two barley cultivars by using gibberellic acid.  Biomedicine and Nursing 2023;9(3):24-34]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203(online). 05. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090323.05.
Keywords: germination, growth, Hordeum vulgare, minerals, nucleic acids, protein banding pattern

6. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Potential of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts against Some Plant and Human Pathogens.
Al-Askar AA1, Rashad YM2, Abdulkhair WM2.
1Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
2Science Department, Teachers College, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
Permanent Address: (Abdulkhair, WM)
General Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Microbiology Department, National Organization for Drug Control and Research, Giza, Egypt.

Abstract: In vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of six medicinal plants (black seed, camphor, cloocynth, clove, ginger and white cedar) were investigated against pathogenic bacteria and fungi at 3, 6 and 9% concentrations. Results obtained in this study showed that the six plant extracts exhibited varied extents of antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms even at low concentration. Among the tested plant extracts, ginger recorded the highest antifungal activity against Alternaria radicina, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Nigrospora oryzae, Phoma destructiva, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii at 9% concentration. Whilst, the maximum antibacterial activity was achieved by black seed extract at 9% concentration against the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia). Chemical compositions of ginger and black seed methanolic extracts were studied using GC-MS analysis and resulted in the identification of 19 and 17 compounds, respectively. Further studies are needed to investigate the antimicrobial potentiality of the active constituents singly or in mixtures with other antibiotics.
[Al-Askar AA, Rashad YM, Abdulkhair WM. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Potential of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts against Some Plant and Human Pathogens. Biomedicine and Nursing 2023;9(3):35-43]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 06. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090323.06.
Key words: Antibacterial; Antifungal; black seed; camphor; colocynth; clove; ginger; white cedar

7. Occurrence of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in lactating Cows and dairy farm environment and its antimicrobial susceptibility pattern at Adami Tulu Jido Kombolcha district, mid Rift Valley, Ethiopia
Frehiwot Mesele1, Kebede Amenu2, Samson Leta2 and Fufa Abunna2
1Adami Tulu Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box: 35, Ziway, Ethiopia

2Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, P.O. Box 34, Bishoftu, Oromia, Ethiopia
*Corresponding author: e-mail:, Mobile: +251-911899435

Abstract: Objectives: Assessing the occurrence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in lactating cows and in dairy environment and to determine its antimicrobial resistance pattern. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from December 2017 to June 2018 on apparently healthy lactating cows at Adami Tulu Jido Kombolcha district. A total of 408 samples (water, milk, manure and feces) were collected and processed according to OIE terrestrial manual 2016. Results: From 408 samples collected and processed, 19 samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7. The overall prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was 4.7% (95% CI: 2.6; 6.7). Of 19 E.coli O157:H7 isolates, water samples (4/50), milk samples (7/154), manure samples (2/50) and fecal samples (6/154). The multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that, the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for areas (urban, rural), floor type, cleaning of pens, milking location and hand washing during the time of milking. On the contrary, breed, herd size, use of towel and detergent, and history of mastitis did not show any significant difference (p > 0.05). All 19 E.coli O157:H7 isolates were subjected to in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity test to ten commonly used antimicrobials. Accordingly, a varying degree of resistance; 100% resistance was observed for ampicillin, cephalothin and rifampin and 100% susceptibility was observed for chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, kanamycin and tetracycline. With regard to streptomycin, 63.15% of the isolates were susceptible and 36.8% were intermediate. All 19 E.coli O157:H7 isolates showed the presence of multidrug resistance. Conclusion: The occurrence of E. coli O157:H7 was observed both in lactating cows (milk and feces) and dairy farm environment (manure and water) sustaining a continuous transmission of the bacteria. The development of multidrug resistance could hamper the control and prevention effort. Therefore, strict control measures such as treatment of positive cases using effective drugs and prevention measures such as strict hygiene practices should be established, including cleaning of floor, pens and milking barns as well as proper hand cleaning and use of clean towel.  

[Frehiwot Mesele, Kebede Amenu, Samson Leta and Fufa Abunna. Occurrence of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in lactating Cows and dairy farm environment and its antimicrobial susceptibility pattern at Adami Tulu Jido Kombolcha district, mid Rift Valley, Ethiopia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2023;9(3):44-55]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 07. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090323.07.
Keywords: Lactating cows, E. coli O157:H7, Dairy farms, Antimicrobial susceptibility test, Ethiopia

8. Agronomic and Yield Performances of Cucumber [Cucumis sativus] on Soil Amended with Different Rates of Cattle Manure in Derived Savannah Agroecological Zone of Ondo State, Nigeria
Eleduma, Ajayi Festus 
Department of Agricultural Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P. M. B. 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

Abstract: Most soils have experience nutrient depletion as a result of long-term farming, making good yields only possible with the application of fertilizers. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used to create a total of fifteen (15) plots in the study, which was conducted at the Rufus Giwa Polytechnic's Teaching Research and Commercial Farms in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study examined the impact of various rates of cattle manure on cucumber. The results revealed that the performance of cucumbers was significantly impacted by an increase in the rate of cattle manure, with 15 tha-1 of cattle manure producing the best results in terms of growth and yield (3.45cm, 73.46cm, 171.22cm2, 16.83, 9.83cm, 21.89cm, 17.19cm, and 5.14kg as stem girth, vine length, leaf area, number of leaves, number of fruits, fruit weight and fruit circumference) and the lowest from control. According to the study, applying cattle manure in the study area at a rate of 15 tha-1 considerably improves cucumber growth and yieldt. In order to improve the physical and chemical properties of the soil and eliminate the need to apply inorganic fertilizer, farmers in the research area are advised to amend their soils with 15 tha-1 cattle dung.
[Eleduma, Ajayi Festus. Agronomic and Yield Performances of Cucumber [Cucumis sativus] on Soil Amended with Different Rates of Cattle Manure in Derived Savannah Agroecological Zone of Ondo State, Nigeria. Biomedicine and Nursing 2023; 9(3):56-62]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 08. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090323.08.
Keywords: amend, cattle manure, cucumber, inorganic fertilizer, substitute

9. SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin monotherapy alleviates renal oxidative stress in albino wistar diabetic rats after myocardial infarction induction and its underlying mechanisms
Ahmed S. Ahmed (corresponding author)

Lecturer, Anatomy and embryology department, College of medicine, Tanta university.
Tanta, Egypt. Mail:

Abstract: Introduction, Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a sudden insult of kidney that happens within a short period of time which is associated with poor prognosis in diabetic patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Subclinical AKI is a condition in which tubular damage biomarkers [Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1(KIM-1)] are positive even in absence of elevated serum creatinine. Recent studies reported that SGLT-2 inhibitors could protect against subclinical AKI in diabetic patients by elevating the level of β-Hydroxybutyric acid (βOHB). The aim of this study is to examine the reno-protective potential of empagliflozin (EMPA) against MI associated AKI in diabetic rats. Material and methods, 80 Albino Wistar rats were divided into; (1) non diabetic sham group (CS), (2) non diabetic + myocardial infarction group (CM), (3) diabetic + myocardial infarction group (DM) and (4) diabetic + myocardial infarction + empagliflozin group (DME).  At the end of experiment, blood samples and kidneys were collected for biochemical analysis histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Results, after induction of myocardial infarction, there was a significant decrease in serum creatinine and NGAL levels in DME. After EMPA administration, mesangial matrix index and glomerular area were lowered in DME if compared to DM group. As a marker for tubular injury we used anti-NGAL and anti-KIM-1 immunohistochemistry. Strong positive reaction was noticed in DM group if compared to DME group which showed weak positive reaction. Levels of renal mRNAs [NGAL; KIM-1; Nox-2,4; TLR-2,4; MyD88; TNF- α and IL-1 β, 18] in DME group were reduced significantly if compared to DM group. Conclusion, Empagliflozin can protect against subclinical acute kidney injury in diabetic albino wistar rats after myocardial infarction induction which could improve the clinical outcome of SGLT-2 inhibitors in diabetic patients.
[Ahmed S. Ahmed. SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin monotherapy alleviates renal oxidative stress in albino wistar diabetic rats after myocardial infarction induction and its underlying mechanisms. Biomedicine and Nursing 2023; 9(3):63-76].ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 09. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090323.09.
Key words: SGLT2 inhibitor; Empagliflozin; Renal; Myocardial infarction; AKI

Biomedicine & Nursing is Available in Libraries across the World. 
Click Here For List of Libraries
Copyright is reserved by Biomedicine & Nursing, Shuang Wang, Huaijie Zhu,​​​​​​​​​​Biomedicine & Nursing is Available in Libraries across the World.