ISSN 2379-8203


Biomedicine and Nursing
Volume 9 - Issue 4 (Cumulated No. 35), December 25, 2023.

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1. Early outcome of minimally invasive aortic valve replacement through mini sternotomy and mini thoracotomy versus conventional approach
Ahmed Nabil Khallaf, MD.
Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Egypt

Abstract: Minimally invasive techniques are gaining more interest, in an attempt to cope with the advances made with the trans catheter interventions, especially those involving the aortic valve. Mini sternotomy and thoracotomy for aortic valve replacement are becoming effective and more cosmetic substitutes to the standard full sternotomy. Aim of work: The aim of this study is to compare early morbidity and mortality after aortic valve surgeries using minimally invasive approaches through mini sternotomy and right anterior thoracotomy, and conventional full median sternotomy approach. Patients and Methods: A prospective study conducted between August 2014 and August 2016 including 60 patients who were candidates for isolated aortic valve replacement through 3 surgical approaches, the conventional full median sternotomy versus mini sternotomy and right anterior mini thoracotomy, 20 patients for each approach, organized in 3 groups, A: conventional, B: ministernotomy, C: minithoracotomy. Inclusion criteria: Patients with rheumatic or degenerative chronic isolated aortic valve disease, Age: 20-70 years old, scheduled for elective isolated aortic valve replacement, with LV function more than 40 %, with no other comorbidities , and Body mass index less than 30. Results: The mean age was 43.7 years. The study included 31 males & 29 females. The mean cross clamp time for group A, B and C was 50.4, 66.9 and 95.7 minutes respectively. The mean bypass time for group A, B and C was 80.8, 95, and 125.3 minutes respectively. The mean post-operative mechanical ventilation time for group A, B and C was 8.7, 7.7 and 8.3 hours respectively. The percentage of patients requiring inotropic support post- operatively for group A, B & C was 55%, 45% and 50% respectively. The mean ICU stay for group A, B and C was 2.95, 2.8, 2.85 days respectively. The mean in-hospital stay for group A, B and C was 9.95, 8.65, 9.55 days respectively. The percentage of patients suffering from wound infection post- operatively for group A was 10% and 5% for group B & C. There was only one early mortality in a patient treated by conventional method (group A). Conclusion: Data analysis confirmed that ministernotomy and right anterior minithoracotomy did not endanger the quality of the procedure, and that these techniques are safe, effective and reproducible therapeutic options that can be compared with conventional treatment.
[Ahmed Nabil Khallaf. Early outcome of minimally invasive aortic valve replacement through mini sternotomy and mini thoracotomy versus conventional approach. Biomedicine and Nursing 2023; 9(4):1-9]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 01. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090423.01.
Key words: Aortic valve replacement, Minimally invasive, Ministernotomy, Minithoracotomy

2. Ecological Response to Habitat Variation for Perennial Species in Saudi Arabia
Migahid, M. M.1 and Aljeddani, G.S.2,*
1 Botany Department, Faculty of Science and Biological and Geological Department ,Faculty of Education, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt .
2Biology Department, Faculty of Science, University of Jeddah, P.O. Box 80327, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia .Correspondence Email:

Abstract: Background: It is important to investigate the relationship between plant distribution and edaphic factors in coastal plains of Saudi Arabia showing remarkable changes in response to environmental alterations. The present study aims to assess the response of some perennial species to variations in soil characteristics and changes in water status from wet winter to dry summer season. Material and Methods: The study has assessed ecological responses in 7 different habitats in the western part of Saudi Arabia at Ras Sharah on the Red Sea coast. The habitats considered in this study included; salt marsh (I), coastal dune (II), sandstone and conglomerates (III), transitional area covered with loose sand (IV), rocky plain covered with loose sand deposits (V), compact transitional area (VI), and loose sand non-saline (VII). Results: The most suitable habitat for the growth of perennial species was habitat V for Panicum turgidum Forssk, habitat VII for Cyperus conglomeratus Rottb, habitat VI for Taverniera aegyptiaca Boiss, habitat III for Indigofera spinosa Forssk, habitat II for Zygophyllum album L. f., and habitat I for Halopeplis perfoliata (Forssk.) Bge ex Schweinf. The main reason for stress was identified as the salinity and drought stresses resulting from soil characteristics and changing climatic conditions from wet to dry season. It was shown that Panicum turgidum possess the most exceptional tolerance capacity.  Conclusion: The study has concluded that recorded perennial species tolerated the stress conditions by accumulating osmoregulation metabolites as soluble carbohydrates proline, protein, and amino acids.
[Migahid, M. M. and Aljeddani, G.S. Ecological Response to Habitat Variation for Perennial Species in Saudi Arabia. Biomedicine and Nursing 2023; 9(4):10-20]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 02. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090423.02.
Keywords: Coastal Plains, Ecological Responses, Edaphic Factors, Habitat, Perennial Species, Soil Characteristics.

​3. Characterization of Renal Function and Morphology in Hypertensive Patients Using Renal scintigraphy
Hossam Gasmalseed 1, 2, Mohamed E. M. Garalnabi1, othila abdalaziz1, Adil A. Mansour 2, Mohamed Hasaneen 2
1College of Medical Radiological Sciences, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan
2Al-Ghad International College of Applied Medical Science, Medical Imaging Technology Department, Dammam, KSA

Abstract: AIM: The aim of study to evaluate renal function in hypertension patients using renogram and correlate it with age, gender, GFR, and duration of disease. METHODS: We studied 100 hypertension patients (42Males,58 Females) mean age 60.6 years, Renal scintigraphy was done to all with 99mTc-MAG3, Renal scintigraphy (anterior and posterior images) was obtained within 20 seconds after administration of 185-370MBq (5-10mCi depended patient weight) of 99mTc-MAG3 and results were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively calculating both kidneys function. RESULTS: In case of radionuclide renography, total glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ranged from 130-40 (mean ± SD) 87. 9±17.3(male 86.8±16.3 female 88.8±18.1), correlated GFR with age decline rate was 0.82 (1.2 ml/min/years) Renal Scintigraphy demonstrated 84% Has normal renal function with mild (AORTA- RENAL DELAY), normal cortical and clearance phase 16% had abnormal function (unilateral 93% and bilateral 7% more affected RT kidney than left). both kidneys show decrease renal function with age and duration of disease. The association was stronger in person had uncontrollable and long standing hypertensive disease. Also noted the average peak activity decrease when the duration of disease increase. CONCLUSIONS: Studies with 99mTc-MAG3 present high specificity and are useful in patients with high probability for renovascular hypertension, identifying high number of patients with significant renal artery stenosis.
[Hossam Gasmalseed, Mohamed E. M. Garalnabi, othila abdalaziz, Adil A. Mansour, Mohamed Hasaneen. Characterization of Renal Function and Morphology in Hypertensive Patients Using Renal scintigraphy. Biomedicine and Nursing 2023;9(4):21-26]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 03. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090423.03.
Keywords: Characterization; Renal Function; Morphology; Hypertensive Patient; Renal scintigraphy

4. Herbal Medicine or Allopathic Medication? For Therapeutic Considerations
Sent to Jou Rashid latif MC Lhr on 17jan2018

Azmat Ali, AP Pharmacology at Isra University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Shah Murad, Professor of Pharmacology, IMDC, Islamabad, Pakistan
Khalid Niaz, Assistant Professor of Pharmacology, IMDC, Islamabad, Pakistan

Hina Aslam, AP Pharmacology & Therapeutics, IMDC, Islamabad-Pakistan
Corr: Shah Murad Mastoi, HOD Pharmacology
Islamabad Medical College, Islamabad,,  CELL: 00923142243415

ABSTRACT: Allopathic drugs used as hypolipidemic agents have number of unwanted effects. Herbal therapy for Hyperlipidemia is getting attention due to their less frequent side effects. In this study we have compared hypolipidemic effects of Fenofibrate 40 mg with Nigella sativa. Seventy five hyperlipidemic patients from National Hospital Lahore were enrolled for study. Consent was taken from all enrolled participents and were divided in three equal numbers ie; twenty five in each group. Group 1 was on Nigella sativa, group 2 was on Gemfibrozil and third group was on placebo therapy. They were advised to take drugs for two months. After completion of study pretreatment and post treatment values of LDL cholesterol were analyzed statistically. In 25 patients who were on Nigella sativa, their LDL cholesterol decreased from 191.14±3.45 to 159.40±2.98 mg/dl. 31.7 mg/dl LDL reduction was observed when compared with placebo group. In 25 patients who were on Fenofibrate 40 mg, their LDL cholesterol decreased from 197.77±3.91 mg/dl to 159.62±2.20 mg/dl. LDL reduction in this group was 38.2 mg/dl. These changes are highly significant with p-values of <0.001. We concluded from this study that hypolipidemic characteristic of Nigella sativa  is  comparable and therapeutically as effective as traditionally used hypolipidemic medication Fenofibrate.                                                                                  
[Azmat Ali , Shah Murad. Khalid Niaz, Hina Aslam, Herbal Medicine or Allopathic Medication? For Therapeutic Considerations Sent to Jou Rashid latif MC Lhr on 17jan2018. Biomedicine and Nursing 2023;9(4):27-30]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online).
04. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090423.04.
Keywords: Herbal; Medicine; Allopathic Medication; Therapeutic Considerations

5. COVID-19, Social Isolation and Human Stress Comparative Behavior & Welfare

Oliveira, G. M1 and Rossi, M. I. D.2
1.Laboratório de Biologia Celular – Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/FIOCRUZ – Rio de Janeiro, Brasil; 2. Instituo de Ciência e Tecnologia em Biomodelos (ICTB/FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro – RJ, Brasil. Telephone: 55 21 25621366.

Abstract: In late 2019, a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, a city in the Hubei province of China. COVID-19 rapidly spread and led to an outbreak in China and then became a global health emergency. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19), showed high transmission capacity and morbidity. To date, despite intensive research, an effective drug, therapy or vaccine against COVID-19 has yet to be confirmed. In this way, WHO suggests that the most efficient method for controlling transmission is social isolation/quarantine to the population. The human being and the laboratory mouse (Mouse Lab) are highly social species with a high capacity to adapt to new routines, as long as they are carried out gradually and the resilience/susceptibility individual’s characteristics. The COVID-19 pandemic promoted a rapid and necessary imposition of social isolation on the population. Swiss W  ebster Outbred stock, although adapted to the situation of restricted space, during their maintenance are also subject to abrupt changes in their routine (strong stressor factor). On the hand, in both species we can define a distress intersection point: abrupt break in routine and compromise in social relationships in both species. For this reason, we can observe in the Swiss Webster ethology various behavioral disturbances, such as family violence, aggression exacerbated and violence. In this review, we hope, through comparative behavioral analysis, to avoid, mitigate and alleviate social stress in humans, mainly through procedures for raising animal welfare. The suggest possibilities as increase of activities virtual social interaction, environment comfort, intellectual and physical activities, in other words elevated adaptation capacity. In conclusion, we believed that our knowledge of Mouse Lab ethology can be useful in this dramatic moment to which all countries are subjected, since, by minimizing stress, the most rudimentary emotions, similar between humans and mice, can be rationalized in the human being and promote the improvement of the human being's quality of life, even in social isolation/quarantine.

[Oliveira, G. M and Rossi, M. I. D., COVID-19, Social Isolation and Human Stress Comparative Behavior & Welfare. Biomedicine and Nursing 2023;9(4):31-39]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 05. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090423.05.
Keywords: COVID-19, social isolation, comparative behavior, Swiss Webster and stress.

6. Volatile active ingredients of Oxyanthus speciosus Dc. and its mechanism of actions
Joseph Kayefor Ebigwai,1 Martina Ebele Ilondu,2 Christiana Obiora3, and Macdonald Idu4

 Department of Plant and Ecological Studies, University of Calabar
       Department of Botany, Delta State University, Abraka
       Department of Radiology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar
       Department of Botany, University of Benin, Benin city

Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: Plants are known to synthesize and accumulate a wide variety of chemical compounds which characterizes their color, scent, taste and their applicative functions. In this research, the chemical compounds present in Oxyanthus speciosus, a multi indigenously used species was studied. The objective was to possibly explain the mechanism of actions behind their medical and industrial applications. Fresh leaf sample obtained from the wild was processed and extracted using methanol and analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometer. The chemical contents were identified according using NIST library. The identified compounds were grouped using their functional groups. Result showed that a total 32 compounds of which ten could not be identified. The identified compounds belong alkaloids (2 members), flavonoid (6 members), phenolic (10 members), and terpenes (2 members). Four compounds {Cycloheptyl cyanide, 2,5- cyclooctadien - 1-ol, cis-1, 3-cyclohexanedicarbonitrile and 1,2 4,5- Tetrazine, 3,6-bis (1-methylethyl)} were reviewed for insecticidal properties while two {Cis- 1,3- cyclohexanedicarbonitrile and Biscyclo[3,1,0] hexan-2- one} were reviewed for anti-microbial actions while others were reviewed as either precursor of known  industrial reagents and others inferred as potential precursors for manufacturing of industrial and medical  chemicals. Some other active ingredients were determined chemically as capable of been used for food packaging. Based on presence of some active ingredients, the species could also be used in mining and metallurgical practice, as source of anesthesia, enhancement of nutritional qualities, production of plastics and nanoparticles. This validates its high indigenous usage while affirming its potency against plethora of ailments as often promoted by herbal healers. However, the identity of the ten unknown compound is a call for future research while further studies were recommended to isolate purified and incorporate extracts of O. speciosus species into the variously mentioned medical and industrial enterprises.
[Joseph Kayefor Ebigwai, Martina Ebele Ilondu, Christiana Obiora and Macdonald Idu, Volatile active ingredients of Oxyanthus speciosus Dc. and its mechanism of actions.Biomedicine and Nursing 2023;9(4):40-52]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 06. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090423.06.
Keywords: Chemotaxonomy, Insecticidal, Nutritional quality, Precursor, Rubiaceae

7. Paternal Voice as Regulator of Neurobehavioral Development in Premature Infants
Khlood S. Bubshait
Department of Pediatric Nursing, College of Nursing, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University
Corresponding Author: Khlood Bubshait, PhD, MSN, RN, BSN
Department of Pediatric Nursing, College of Nursing, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University
PO Box 1982, Dammam
Eastern province 32441, KSA
Phone: +966506809075

Abstract: Preterm infants have been observed to suffer from various physiological and neurobehavioral disorders as a result of paternal disruptions due to hospitalization within the NICU. The neurobehavioral developmental disorders are attributed to lack of increased parental interaction and attachments with their premature infants. One study found that absence of maternal voice as a form of auditory sensory deprivation has only been postulated in humans, but research with primate and other nonhuman species has demonstrated dramatic short and long-term physiological and neurobehavioral effects when offspring are either separated and/or subjected to alterations in maternal stimulation.
[Khlood S. Bubshait,Khlood Bubshait, PhD, MSN, RN, BSN. Paternal Voice as Regulator of Neurobehavioral Development in Premature Infants.Biomedicine and Nursing 2023;9(4):53-54]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 07. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090423.07.
Keywords: Preterm infant; suffer; physiological and neurobehavioral disorder; paternal disruption; hospitalization; human; neurobehavioral effect; offspring; maternal stimulation

8. Synergistic antioxidant activity of honey bee products and their mixtures
Kamel, A. A; Marzouk , W. M. ; Hashish, M. E. and Abd El  Dayem, M.R.
Beekeeping Research Department, Plant Protection Res. Institute (PPRI), Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt.

Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of binary combination  antioxidant synergistic effects of Honeybee products (citrus honey, clover honey, sugar feeding honey, bee pollen, bee bread, bee wax, old wax comb, Egyptian propolis, Chinese propolis, royal jelly, Drone brood homogenate, Worker brood homogenate, queen brood homogenate, bee venom ) and The present study compared the antioxidant activity between water and ethanol extracts of bee products and evaluated the synergistic antioxidant activity effect of binary combination of bee products (water and ethanol extracts, separately), the antioxidant activity was analysed via DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay and found that, propolis is the most powerful antioxidant of all the bee products examined, and the ethanol (80%) extraction method recorded more antioxidant activity than the water extract, but in the royal jelly, drone brood homogenate, worker brood homogenate, queen brood homogenate, bee venom the water extract were the highest. The data obtained provide that, the mixture activity of bee products  understudy affected by the interaction between bioactive compounds which effect on the substances showed antioxidant activity, and some of these binary combinations recorded synergistic effects, this may be due to the antioxidant capacity may increasing by additive another antioxidant components from other products.
[Kamel, A. A; Marzouk, W. M.; Hashish, M. E. and Abd El Dayem, M.R. Synergistic antioxidant activity of honey bee products and their mixtures.Biomedicine and Nursing 2023;9(4):55-71]. ISSN 2379-8211 (print); ISSN 2379-8203 (online). 08. doi:10.7537/marsbnj090423.08.
Keywords: honeybee products, antioxidant activity, synergistic, binary combination

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